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MYOLOGY 


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AN     ATLAS 


OF 


HUMAN  ANATOMY 

FOR    STUDENTS    AND    PHYSICIANS 


BY 

CARL  TOLDT,  M.D. 

PROFESSOR     OF     ANATOMY     IN     THE      U  N  I V  E  R  S I T  Y     OF     VIENNA 

ASSISTED    BV 

PROFESSOR  ALOIS  DALLA  ROSA,  M.D. 


^raiislatcC)  from  tbc  Z\mi>  Gorinati  ]E^^tioll  aiiC»  a^apte&  to  Eiiijlisb  aii5  amciican  an& 

international  'Ccrminoloiiv? 

BY 

M.  EDEN  PAUL,  M.D.   Brux.,   M.R.C.S.,  L.R.C.P. 


THIRD    SECTION 
D.     MYOLOGY 

(figures  490   TO   640   AND    INDEX) 


,N5''^^. 


J^m%^ 


LONDON 
REBMAN.   LIMITED 

129,  SHAFTESBURY  .VVENUE,  CAMBRIDGE  CIRCUS.  W.C. 

New  York  Agents:  REBMAN  COMPANY 

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1904 


OfO 


SJAt^, 


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Stt^ 


W\<-c. 


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GENERAL  TABLE  OF  CONTENTS 

Part  I. 

A.  The  Regions  of  the  Human  Body  (Figs,  i  to  5) 

B.  Osteology   (Figs.  6  to  377j.     With   Index. 

Price,  bound  in  cloth,  §2.50  net.  "^S.   [Ready. 

Part  II. 

C.  Arthrology   (Figs.   378  to  489).     With   Index. 

Price,  bound  in  cloth,  §1,75  net.  '^^   [Ready. 

Part  HI. 

D.  Myology,    with     a    Supplement    on    the    Anatomy   of    Hernia 

(Figs.  490  to  640).     With   Index. 
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Part  IV. 

E.  Splanchnology  (Figs.  641   to  932).     With   Index. 

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Part  V. 

F.  Angeloiogy  (Figs.  933  to   1,123).     With   Index. 

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Part  VI. 

G.  Neurology  (Figs.  1,124  to  1,333). 

H.  The  Organs  of  the  Senses  (Figs.  1,334  to  1,505).    With 

Index. 
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Entered  at  Stationers'  Hall. 


MYOLOGIA 
MYOLOGY 


33 


MYOLOGY— GENERAL   CONSIDERATIONS 


33- 


260 


MYOLOGY— GENERAL  CONSIDERATIONS 


Nuclei  of  the 
muscular  fibre  ~-- 


-"    --^ 


m 


-Sarcolemma 


Perimysium  of  a  primary  fasciculus  of 
,'^  muscular  fibres 


...^Individual  fibres  of  a 
-^     primary  fasciculus 


_Cross  striated 
contractile 
substance 


'"/i 


Fig.  490. — A  Portion  of  an  Isolated  Cross- 
striated  Muscular  Fibre. 


-Sarcolemma 


Cross-striated 
contractile 
substance 


Perimysium  of  a 

fasciculus  of 
muscular  fibres 


I  Nuclei  of  the 

connective- 
I   tissue  cells 


)    Nuclei  of  the 
I  muscular  fibres 


Nuclei  of  the   ;- 
muscular  fibre'  "    / 


I^iG.  491. — A  Portion  of  an  Isolated  Cross- 
striated  Muscular  Fibre  in  which  for 
A  Short  Distance  the  Contractile  Sub- 
stance has  been  removed  from  the 
Sarcolemma. 


Muscular  fibres^:--,__ 


^Endomysium  of  the 
muscular  fibres 


Fig.  492. — Fasciculus  of  Muscular  Fibres 
from  a  Longitudinal  Section  of  the 
Human  Sartorius  Muscle,  hardened  in 
Picric  Acid  Solution. 


Capillary  bloodvessels 


-Perimysium  of  a  fasciculus 

of  muscular  fibres 


Bloodvessels'^'''' 


---::^Endomysium  of  the 
,  muscular  fibres 


Fig.  493.— Fasciculi  of  Muscular  Fibres  in  Transverse  Section.  Some  of  the  Fasciculi  have 
fallen  out  of  the  Section.  In  the  Perimysium  of  the  Fasciculi  numerous  Capillary 
Bloodvessels  are  seen  in  Transverse  Section.  (From  a  Transverse  Section  of  the 
Human  Sartorius  Muscle,  hardened  in  Picric  Acid  Solution  and  Alcohol.) 


Elementary  Constituents  and  Structure  of  Muscle. 


MYOLOG Y— GENERAL   CONSIDERA TIONS 


261 


Capillary  bloodvessels. 


Endomysium  of  the^ 
muscular  fibres 

Sarcolemma- 


nuscular  fibres' 


Endomysium  undergoing 
transition  to  tendon 


(S^. 


Thickening  of  the  periosteum 
at  the  site  of  origin 
of  a  muscle 


Direct  origin  of  muscular 
fibres  from  the  periosteum 
Periosteum 
Periosteum 


Muscular  fibres 

Perimysium  of  the 
muscular  fibres 


Epimysium 


Tendon 

Tendo 

Bursa  beneath  the  tendon 

lUiisa  mucosa  suhlciulinea 

Indirect  insertion  of 
muscle  by  tendon 


Fig.  494.— Diagrammatic  Representation 
ov  THE  Relation  of  the  Muscular 
Fibres  to  the  Endomysium. 


Fig.  495. — Diagrammatic  Representation  of  the 
Relation  of  the  Perimysium  to  the  Origin 
AND  THE  Insertion  of  the  Muscle  (the  In- 
sertion in  this  Case  being  by  Tendon). 


Arterioles 


Perimysium  of  the  • 
secondary  fasciculi 


Perimysium  of  th 
primary  fasciculi 


-Nerve  filament 


--^-jPrimary  fasciculi 


"/i 


Epimysium  (the  investment  or 
~"~--Bheath  of  areolar  tissue  sur- 
rounding the  entire  muscle) 


Fig.  496.— Transverse  Section  through  the  Sartorius  Muscle  of  a  New-born   Infant, 
showing  the  Primary  and  Secondary  Fasciculi  oi-  Muscular  Fibres. 


Structure  of  Muscle. 


262 


MYOLOGY— GENERAL    CONSIDERATIONS 


Head  . 

Caput 


I 


.  Tendon 
Tendo 


^Head 

Caput 


Belly 
Venter 


Tendon 

Tendo  ~  ^^^ 

Tendon 

Tend  > 

Fig.  497. — MuscuLus      Fig.  498. — Musculus     Fig.  499. — Musculus      Fig.  500. — Musculus 
FusiFORMis ;    Fusi-        Unipennatus;  Pen-       Bipennatus;  Bipen-  Biceps;      Double- 

form  Muscle.  niform  Muscle.  niform  Muscle.  headed  Muscle. 


Tendinous 

intersection 

Inscriptio 

tendinea 


. Tendon 

Tendo 


Belly 

Venter 


Fig.  501. — Broad 
Muscle. 


Fig.  502. — Strap-shaped 
Muscle. 


_BeUy 

Venter 


Fig.  503. — Musculus  Biventek. 
Digastric  Muscle. 


The  Principal  Muscular  Forms. 


MYOLOGY— GENERAL    CONSIDER  A  TIONS 


263 


Common  head  for  the  coracobrachialis  muscle  and 
the  internal  or  short  head  of  the  biceps  muscle    - 


Antagonists  in  relation  to  the  shoulder-join*^ 


Biceps  flexor  cubiti  niusclp 
(acting  on  three  joints) 


In  relation  to  the  humero-ulnar 
articulation 


Antagonistr  ^ 


Axis  of  the  trochoid  articulation  or     

pivot  joint  (the  radio  ulnar  articulation) 


Synergists  in  relation 
the  shoulder  joint 


Coracobrachialis  muscle 
(acting  on  one  joint) 

Head  acting  on 
two  joints 

Head  acting  on 
one  joint 


of  the  triceps  extensor 
cubiti  muscle 


Brachialis  anticus  muscle 
(acting  on  one  joint) 


Supinator  radii  brevis 
(acting  on  one  joint) 


Antagonists  in  relation  to  the 
radio  ulnar  articulation 


Axis  of  the  ginglymus  or  hinge-joint 
I, the  humero-ulnar  articulation) 

Pronator  radii  teres  muscle 

\j  '      (acting  on  two  joints) 

Synergists  (supinators)  ~j 

I  in  relation  to  the  radio-ulnar 
j  articulation 

Synergists  (pronators)      j 

Pronator  quadratus  muscle  (acting  on  one  joint) 


l"ic;.  504. — Tin-:   Muscles  of  the  Arm  and  the  Pronatok  and  Supinator  Muscles  oi-  the 

FoKEAKM   AS  EXAMPLES   OF  THE  RELATION   UE  VaUIOUS    MusCLES  TO  OnE  OK  SeVEKAL  JolNTS, 

and  also  of  the  synergistic  or  antagonistic  action  of  muscles  in  relation  to  a 
Particular  Joint. 


Relation  of  the   Muscles  to  the  Joints. 


264 


MYOL OG Y— GENERA L    CONSIDER.!  TIONS 


r-M^,,-; 


Investing  portion  of  the  deep 

fascia  of  the  arm 

Fascia  brachii  (Lamina 

superiicialis) 


The  internal  cutaneous  nerve 
piercing  the  deep  fascia 

Epimysium  of  the  biceps 
flexor  cubiti  muscle 

Layer  of  the  deep  fascia  of  the  arm 

between  the  biceps  and  the 

brachialis  muscle 

Fascia  bracliii  (Lamina  profunda) 

Musculocutaneous  nerve 

N.  cutaneus  aiitibrachii   lateralis 

Brachial  artery  with  its 
accompanying  veins  and  nerves 
Basilic  vein    - 

Vena  basilica 

Internal  intermuscular  septum 

Septum  intermubculare  mediale" 


Ulnar  nerve  — 

N.  ulnaris 

Investing  portion  of  the  deep  fascia 

of  the  arm 
Fascia  brachii  (Lamina  superficialis 


Skin 

Integumentum  commune 


Superficial  fascia 

Fascia  sui:erficialis 


Cutaneous  vein  (the  cephalic  vein) 
Vena  cutanea  (V.  cephajicaj 


Biceps  flexor  cubiti  muscle 

M    biceps  brachii 

Junction  of  the  areolar  septum  be- 
tween the  biceps  and  the  brachialis 
muscle  with  the  general  investing 
portion  of  the  deep  fascia  of  the  arm 

Brachialis  anticus  muscle 

^I    bracliialis 

Musculospiral  nerve— N.  radialis 

Supinator  radii  longus  muscle 

M    bracliiuradialis 

The  humerus — Humerus 

External  intermuscular  septum 

Septum  intermusculare  laterale 

Triceps  extensor  cubiti  muscle 

M.  triceps  brachii 
Superficial  fascia — Fascia  superficialis 
Skin — Integumentum  commune 


Fig.  505. — Aponeurosis  or  Fascia.  The  Relation  of  the  Deep  Fascia  to  the  Various  Groups 
OF  Muscles  and  to  the  Bone.  The  Intermuscular  Septa.  The  Superficial  Fascia. 
(Fascia  of  the  Right  Arm.) 

The  individual  muscles  with  their  investing  fascia  in  the  lower  third  of  the  arm  have  been  divided 

transversely  at  varying  levels. 


Skin 

Integumentum  commune 
Superficial  fascia     „ 

Fascia  superficialis 
Brachial  artery  with  its  accompanying  ->, 
veins  and  nerves 

Basilic  vein     - 

Vena  basilica 

Ulnar  nerve  - 

N.  ulnaris 

Internal  intermuscular  septum ._ 

Septum  intermusculare  mediale  ^^^, 

The  humerus  „ 
Humerus  ^t^H£!s 

Triceps  extensor  cubiti  muscle  - 

M.  triceps  brachii 


Investing  portion  of  the  deep  fascia  of  the  arm 

Fascia  brachii  (Lamina  superficialis) 

Biceps  flexor  cubiti  muscle 
"M.  biceps  brachii 
-Cephalic  vein— Vena  cephalica 
Layer  of  the  deep  fascia  of  the  arm  between 
the  biceps  and  the  brachialis  muscle  (i) 
...-Brachialis  anticus  muscle— M.  brachiahs 

Musculospiral  nerve 
N.  radialis 

Supinator  radii  longus  muscle 
M.  brachioradialis 

External  intermuscular  septum 
Septum  intermusculare  laterale 


(i)  Fascia  brachii  (Lamina  profunda) 

Fig.  506.— The  Grouping  of  the  Muscles  of  the  Arm,  and  the  Relation  of  these  Muscles 
to  the  Deep  Fascia.  (Transverse  Section  through  the  Right  Upper  Arm  in  the 
Neighbourhooi)  of  its  Distal  Extremity;  Proximal  Cut  Surf.\ce.     Semi-Dwgrammatic.) 


Aponeurosis  or  Fascia. 


MUSCULI    TRUNCl 
THH  MUSCLES  OF  THE  TRUNK 


34 


266 


THE   MUSCLES   OE   THE   TRUNK 


Auricularis  superior,  or  attollens  auriculam,  muscle 

Auricularis  posterior,  or  retrahens  auriculam  muscle   \ 
Transversus  nuchse  muscle  (var  ) 
Complexus,  or  semispinalis  capitis,  muscle 
Sternocleidomastoid  muscle 

M.  steriiLjLl^^iiiuMia^toidcus 

Splenius  capitis  muscle 

Levator  anguli  scapulae  muscle 

M.  levator  scapulx- 


—Occipitalis  muscle 


Deep  cervical  fascia 

Fascia  nuchaj 


Seventh  cervical  vertebra 
Vertebra  cer\icalis  \11. 


Trapezius  muscle 


Infraspinous 
fascia 


Triceps  extensor 
cubiti  muscle 
(middle  or  long 

head) 
M.  triceps  brachii 
(Caput  longum' 

Teres  major  muscle 
Latissimus  dorsi  muscle 


External  oblique  muscle  of 

the  abdomen 

M.  obliquus  extei'nus 

abdominis 


Gluteal  portion  of  the  fascia  lata 

of  the  thigh 

Fascia  glutaea 


Spine  of  the  scapula 

bpina  scapula 


Deltoid  muscle 


Triceps  extensor  cubiti  muscle 

M.  triceps  brachii    , 
Latissimus  dorsi  muscle- 


Twelfth  dorsal  vertebra 
Vertebra  thoracalis  XII. 

Superficial  or  posterior  layer  of  the 
lumbar  fascia' 


External  oblique  muscle  of 
the  abdomen 
M.  obliquus  externus  abdominis 
Triangle  of  Petit 
Trigonum  lumbale  (Petiti) 
Crest  of  the  ilium 
Crista  iliaca 

Posterior  superior  spine  of 

the  ilium 

Spina  iliaca  posterior  superior 


'  See  notes  to  pp.  2C7  and  285  for  an  account  of  the  different  portions  of  the  lumbar  fascia. 

Fig.  507. — First  (Supeki-icial)  Layer  of  the  Muscles  of  the  Back  (Wihe  Muscles  of  the 
Back):  the  Trape^cius  Muscle  (CucuLLAiys) ;  the  Latissimus  Dorsi  Muscle.  Super- 
ficial OR  Posterior  Layer  of  the.  Lumbar  Fascia. 


Musculi  dorsi — Muscles  of  the  back. 


THE   MUSCLES   OF   THE    TRUNK 


267 


Highest 
Curved  line    I      Siiprcma 
Linea  nuchx'j  Superior 

ior    '" 


I     Highest  ^^  ^ 

I      Siipic-ma        y"^  j^ 
:"|  Superii 

Complexus,  or  semispinalis  capitis,  muscle 


Sternocleidomastoid  muscle 
(divided  and  turned  aside) 

^I.  sternocleidomastoidcus 

Splenius  capitis  muscle  ... 
Splenius  colli,  or  splenius  cervicis,  muscle  — 

Levator  anguli  scapulse  muscle 
M    levator  scapula; 

Serratus  posticus  superior  muscle 

M,  serratus  pnsterior  superior 


Lambdoid  or  occipitoparietal  suture 
Sutura  lanibiloidea 


Ligamentum  nucbae 

Deep  cervical  fascia  (deep  layer) 
Fascia  nucbx  (Lamina  profunda) 

Spinous  process  of  the  seventh  cervical  vertebra 

I'rocossus  spinosus  vertebra'  cirvicalis  \'I1. 

Serratus  posticus  superior  muscle 

■  ^I.  serratus  posterior  superior 

Rhomboideus  minor  muscle 

Rhomboideus  major  muscle 


Vertebral  aponeurosis 
Fascia  lumbodorsalis 


External  intercostal  muscles 
Mm.  intercostales  e.xterni 


Serratus  posticus  inferior  muscle 
M.  serratus  posterior  inferior 


Latissimus  dorsi  muscle  (arising  from 
the  superficial  or  posterior  layer  of" 
tlie  lumbar  fascial 

Internal  oblique  muscle  of  the  abdomen. 

M.  oblicjnus  internus  abtlomiuis 

External  oblique  muscle  of  the  abdomen  . 

M.  oblicjuus  externus  abdominis 

Superficial  or  posterior  layer  of 

the  lumbar  fascia 

Fascia  lumbodorsalis 


Gluteus  medius  muscle 

M    "lulaus  medius 


Gluteus  maximuB  muscle 
M.  glutaus  mx\inius 


Supraspinous  fascia 

Fascia  supIa^piuala 


Infraspinous  fascia 
Fascia  infraspinata 


Serratus  magnus  muscle 
M   serratus  anterior 


Spinous  process  of  the  twelfth 

dorsal  vertebra 

Processus  spinosus  vertebra; 

ihoracalis  XII. 


Latissimus  dorsi  muscle  iarising 
from  the  three  lowest  ribs) 

External  oblique  muscle  of  the 

abdomen 
M.  obliquus  externus  abdominis 
Triangle  of  Petit 

XriKonum  luniliale  (Petiti) 

.  Crest  of  the  ilium 

Crista  iliaca 


..Gluteal  portion  of  the  fascia  lata 
Fascia  filut.ia 


Fig.  508. — Skcond  Lavkr  of  the  Musclks  of  tiif.  H.\ck  (Widk  Misclks  of  tiif   r>.\cK),  shown 

BY  THK    KfMOVAL  OF  THE    LaTISSIMUS    DoKSI   AND  THE  Tl<APK;JIlS    Ml'SCLES;   ON   THE   LeFT  SiDE, 
THE    KllOMUOIDEUS    MaJOK    AND    KlIOMHOIDEUS    MiNOR    Ml'SCLES    HAVE    ALSO    15EEN    REMOVED. 
Thumusclcsofthcsccoinl  layer  arc:  Rhomboideus  major,rhomboidcus  minor,  serratus  posticus  superior, 
serratus  posticus  inferior,  anil  levator  anguli  scapula'.     The  superficial  or  posterior  Layer  of  the 
lumbar  fast  ia,'  by  mc.ins  of  wliicli  the  latissimus  dorsi  and  the  serratus  posticus  inferior  muscles 
are  attached  to  the  spines  of  the  verlcl)r:e,«.ind  the  vertebral  aponeurosis,  are  also  shown. 

'  The  name  of  tumhar  fascia  w  by  wmc  nnntomHI<(  rculrictcd  Vi  the  deeper  layers  of  tht^  »lnicturc  (^ee  note  10  p.  jSs),  and  wliat  we 
here  cill  the  su/'fr/tcint  or  ftnUrior  tayir  0/  the  iumhar  fiisfia  i%  in  ihat  ewe  either  rcRarded  M  iSc  /*ni'rr  fertioH  tj/  the  zvr/irra/ 
aponturosis  (wilh  which  it  is  conlinuous),  or  else  i<*  termed  t)ie  a^mrvrotis  0/  tht  tatissimm  dcrsi  miucU. — Tn. 


Musculi  dorsi — Muscles  of  the  back. 


34- 


268 


THE   MUSCLES   OF   THE   TRUNK 


Complexus,  or  semispinalis 
capitis,  muscle 


SpleniuE  capitis  muscle 


Scalenus  posticus  muscle 
M.  scalenus  posterior 

Splenius  colli  muscle 

M.  splenius  cervicis 


Serratus  magnus  muscle  - 


Spinalis  dorsi  muscle - 


Musculus  accessorius  ad  iliocostalem. 

M.  iliocostalis  dorsi 

Longissimus  dorsi  muscle 

Serratus  posticus  inferior  muscle 
M.  serratus  posterior  inferior 


Externa  oblique  muscle  of  the  abdomen 

M.  obliquus  cxtcrnus  abdominis 

Iliocostalis  or  sacrolumbalis  muscle 
M.  iliocostalis  lumborum 

Superficial  or  posterior  layer  of  the  . 
lumbar  fascia'  (turned  outwards) 
I'ascia  lumbudorsalis 


-  Obliquus  capitis  superior  muscle 
Complexus,  or  semispinalis  capitis,  muscle 

Trachelomastoid  muscle 

M.  longissimus  capitis 

Transversalis  cervicis  muscle 
M.  longissimus  cervicis 

Ligamenttun  nuchse 

...Spinalis  cervicis  muscle 

Cervicalis  ascendens  muscle 

.M    i'iocostalis  cervicis 


Serratus  magnus  muscle 


Longissimus  dorsi  muscle 
"  (outer  row  of  insertions) 

Spinalis  dorsi  muscle 


Musculus  accessorius  ad 
iliocostalem 

M.  iliocostalis  dorsi 


External  intercostal  muscles 
Mm.  intercostales  extern! 


Internal  oblique  muscle  of  the 
abdomen 

M.  obliquus  internus  abdominis 


'  See  note  to  p.  267. 

Fig.  509. — Third  Layer  of  the  Muscles  of  the  B.-^ck  (Long  Muscles  of  the  Back),  shown 
BY  the  Removal  of  the  First  and  Second  Layers  of  Muscles  and  of  the  Superficial  or 
Posterior  Layer  of  the  Lumbar  Fascia  and  the  Vertebral  Aponeurosis;  on  the  Right 
Side  the  Musculus  Accessorius  ad  Iliocostalem  has  been  dr.^wn  Outwards. 

The  muscles  of  the  third  layer  arc:  The  erector  spina*,  consisting  of  the  iliocostalis  (sacrolumbalis) 
and  the  longissimus  dorsi,  with  their  prolongations  upwards — accessorius,  spinalis,  and  splenius 
muscles. 


Musculi  dorsi — Muscles  of  the  back- 


THE  MUSCLES  OF  THE   TRUNK 


26S 


Superior  corred  line    _ 

Linca  niichx  superior 
Complexus,  or  semispinalis.. 
capitis,  muscle 

Splenius  capitis  muscle 

Levator  anguli  scapulae  muscle 

M.  levator  scapuhe 

Cervicalis  ascendens  muscle  (insertion) 
M.  iliocostalis  cervicis 

Splenius  colli  muscle— M.  splenius  cervicis-. 

Scalenus  posticus  muscle— M.  scalenus  pusterior, 

Musculus  accessorius  ad  iliocostalem  ( insertion  i 

M    iliociistahs  ilorsi 

Cervicalis  ascendens  muscle  divided  and  the-- 
lower  extremity  turned  inwards) 

M    iliocuslalis  cervicis 

Insertion  of  the  serratus  posticus 
superior  muscle  into  the  ribs 


Musculus  accessorius  ad  iliocostalem 

(the  tendons  of  insertion  have  been 

divided,  the  uppermost  excepted) 

M.  iliocoslalis  dorsi 

Angle  of  the  sixth  rib 
An^uhis  costx  VI. 

Iliocostalis  or  sacrolumbalis  muscle  [in-,, 
sertion)  —  M    iliocostalis  lumborum 

Longissimus  dorsi  muscle  — 
Iliocostalis  or  sacrolumbalis  muscle  ten- 
dons of  insertion,  divided  and  turned  — 
upwards)  -M    iliocostalis  himborum 

Musculus  accessorius  ad  iliocostalem  (origin)  - 
Iliocostalis  or  sacrolumbalis  muscle 
(insertion  by  muscular  slips  into  the 
eleventh  and  twelfth  ribs) 
M.  iliocostalis  lumborum 
Serratus  posticus  inferior  muscle  . 
(insertion  into  the  ribs 
M.  serratus  posterior  inferior 
External  oblique  muscle  of  the  abdomen 
M.  oblujuus  e\ternus  abdominis 

Transversalis  abdominis  muscle 

M.  iransversus  abdominis 

Iliocostalis  or  sacrolumbalis  muscle.. 
M.  iliocostalis 

Internal  oblique  muscle  of 

the  abdomen 

M.  obliquus  internus 

abdominis 

External  oblique  muscle  of  the 

abdomen 
M.  obliquus  eMeruiis  abilominis 

Gluteus  maximus  muscle 
M.  glutxus  maximus 


rrapezius  muscle 

Ligamentum  nuchas 
/Rhomboideus  minor  muscle 

Spinous  process  of  the  first  dorsal  vertebra 

Processus  spinosus  vertebra'  tlioracalir.  1 

Levator  anguli  scapulae  muscle 
M.  levator  scapubr 

Serratus  posticus  superior  muscle 
''M.  serratus  posterior  superior 

Rhomboideus  major  muscle 

■  Trapezius  muscle 

Deltoid  muscle 

\l    deltoiileus 

Infraspinous  fascia 

I  ascia  inlraspinata 
Teres  major  muscle 


Middle  or  long  head 
of  the  triceps  exten- 
sor cubiti  muscle 
^^Latissimus  dorsi  muscle 
insertion* 

__  Serratus  posticus  inferior  muscle 

•M.  serratus  posterior  inferior 

>Latissimus  dorsi  muscle  (origin) 

The  lov/est  slips  of  origin  of 
'the  external  oblique  muscle 
of  the  abdomen 
Internal  oblique  muscle  of  the 
abdomen 
M.  obliquus  internus  abdominis 

External  oblique  muscle 
of  the  abdomen 

M  obliqu  us  extern  us  abdomini'? 

Superficial  or  posterior  layer  of 
the  lumbar  fascia' 

I'.'iscia  liiinbi  liursalis 

Gluteal  portion  of  the  fascia  lata 

I  .ascia  ),'lut.ia 


'  See  note  to  p.  267. 

Fig.  510. — The  Divisions  or  the  Iliocostalis  ok  Sackolumbalis  Muscle  and  its  Accessory 
Slips  of  Ouigin,  shown  uv  the  Removal  of  Portions  of  the  Miscle.  The  Levator 
Angi'li  Scapll.k.  the  Splenus  Capitis,  anp  the  Splenu's  Colli  Muscles.  The  Sekkatus 
Posticus  Superior  and  the  Serratus  Posticus  Inferior  Muscles. 

The  last-named  muscle  has,  in  respcrt  of  the  width  of  its  slips  of  insertion,  a  very  dilTcrcnt  np|>caraiicc 

from  that  shown  in  Fig.  508. 


Musculi  dorsi     Muscles  of  the  back. 


270 


TFIE   MUSCLES   OF   THE   TRUNK 


Superior  curved  line 
Linea  nuchas  superior 

Mastoid  process 

Processus  mastoideus 

Trachelomastoid  muscle 

M.  longissimiis  capitis 

Complexus,  or  semispinalis 
capitis,  muscle 


Semispinalis  colli  muscle 

M.  semispinalis  cervicis 


Transversalis  cervicis  muscle 
with  the  accessory  slip  from 
the  longissimus  dorsi  muscle 


Semispinalis  dorsi  muscle 


External  intercostal  muscles  | 

Mm.  intcrcostales  externi 


Longisiimu3  dorsi  muscle 


Multifidus  spinse  muscle- 

M.  multifidus 


Longissimus  dorsi  muscle 
(inner  row  of  insertions) 


Internal  oblique  muscle  of  the  abdomen 

M.  oliliquus  interuus  abdominis 


Obliquus  capitis  superior  muscle 
Rectus  capitis  posticus  minor  muscle 

J— r- M    rectus  capitis  posteri(ir  niincir 

'  Rectus  capitis  posticus  major  muscle 

_  M.  rectus  capitis  postcriar  major 

Obliquus  capitis  inferior  muscle 

\W  Interspinales  muscles 

ak  '"^    Scalenus  medius  muscle 

Semispinalis  colli  muscle 

M,  semispinalis  cervicis 
Scalenus  posticus  muscle 
M.  scalenus  posterior 


Fig 


Levatores  costarum  muscles 

Mm.  levatores  costarum 

breves 


S\ External  intercostal  muscles 
JMm.  intercostales  externi 


f  Levatores  costarum  longiores  muscles 

\^Miu    levatoies  costarum  longi 


Multifidus  spinse  muscle 

M.  multifidus 

Intertransversales  laterales  muscles 
Mm    intertransversarii  posteriores 
laterales 
Middle  layer  of  the  lumbar  fascia,  forming 
the  posterior  aponeurosis  of  the  transver- 
salis abdominis  muscle     I-ig  himbocostale 
Transversalis  abdominis  muscle 
M    transversus  abdominis 


Gluteus  medius  muscle 
M.  glutx-us  medius 


Gluteus  maximus  muscle 
M.  gluteus  ma.ximus 


,  511. — P'ouRTH  Layer  of  the  Muscles  of  the  B.\ck  (Long  Muscles  of  the  Back);  on  the 
Left  Side  the  Longissimus  Dorsi  and  the  Transversalis  Cervicis  h.-we  been  dr.\wn 
Outwards,  showing  the  Connexion  between  the  Two,  and  their  Attachments  to  the 
Transverse  Processes  of  the  Vertebra;  on  the  Right  Side  the  Erector  Spin.e  Muscle 
has  been  entirely  removed  ;  the  Semispinalis  Dorsi,  Semispinalis  Colli,  Semispinalis 
Capitis  (Complexus),  and  the  Multifidus  Spin^  AIuscles  make  up  the  Fourth  Layer. 

Regarding  the  insertion  of  the  longissimus  dorsi  muscle  into  the  lumbar  vertebiix?  and  the  elventh  and 

twelfth  ribs,  sec  also  Fig.  592. 


Musculi  dorsi — Muscles  of  the  back. 


THE   MUSCLES   OF   THE   TKi'NK 


271 


Complexus,  or  semispinalis  capitis,  muscle  — 
Obliqr.us  capitis  superior  muscle 
Obliquus  capitis  inferior  muscle 


Interspinales  muscles 


Tilultifidas  spinas  muscle 
M    iiuilurulus 


External  intercostal  muscles  ( 
Mm   imcrcostalos  cxturni       I 


Middle  layer  of  the  lumbar  fascia,  forming 

the  posterior  aponeurosis  of  the  trans 

versalis  abdominis  muscle 

Lig.  liiml)uci)^I;ilc 

Interspinales  muscles  ( 
Mm.  interspinales       i" 
Transversalis  abdominis  muscle 
M.  transversus  abdominis 


Superior  curved  line 
Linea  nucha;  superior 

Rectus  capitis  posticus  minor  muscle 

M    rectus  capitis  (msteniir  niinnr 
Rectus  capitis  lateralis  muscle 
Rectus  capitis  posticus  major  muscle 

M.  rectus  capitis  pusteriur  niajur 


Posterior  intertransversales  muscles 
/Mm.  interlransversarii  posteriores 


Seventh  cervical  vertebra 
Vertebra  cervicalis  VII. 


Rotatores  longi  muscles 

Levator  costs  longior  muscle 
M.  levator  cosla?  longus 


\  ,^^*^'.      "\Levatores  costarum  muscles 

I        (Mm    levatcres  cuslaiuiii  breves 


\  Rotatores  dorsi  muscles 
Mm.  rotatores  breves 


Levator  costss  longior  muscle 

M.  levator  costx  loni.;us 


Twelfth  dorsal  veUebra 

Wriibia  tlinracalis  Nil. 

Intertransvercales  mediales 

or  interaccesEorii  muECles 

Mm    intertransversarii 

posteriores  mecliaks 


Intertransverf  ales  laterales  muscles 

Mm    iiuertransversarii  posteriores 

laterales 


Fig.  512.— Fifth  (Dehpest)  Layek  oi-  the  Muscles  ui-  the  Back  (Short  Miscles  of  the 
Back):  Kotatokes  Longi,  Rotatokes  Doksi  ;  Inteksi-inales  ;  Intektkansveksales  ; 
Levatokes  Costaul'm. 

The  short   posterior  cranioveitcbral  or  suboccipital  muscles  also  belong  to  the  fifth  layer  of  the 

musciv!)  of  tiie  back. 


Musculi  dorsi     Muscles  of  the  back. 


272 


THE   MUSCLES   OF   THE    TRUNK 


Rectus  capitis  posticus  minor  muscle  (origin) 
M.  rectus  capitis  posterior  minor 

Transverse  process  of  the  atlas . 

Processus  transversus  atlantis 


Obliquus  capitis  inferior  muscle  (origin)    -___  /y^' 

Rectus  capitis  posticus  major  muscle 

(origin 

M.  rectus  capitis  posterior  major 

Spinous  process  of  the  axis 
I'rocessus  spinosus  epistrophei 

Multifidus  spinas  muscle  (insertions) 
M.  multifidus 


Semispinalis  colli  muscle  (insertions) 

M.  semispinalis  cervicis 


Botatores  longi  muscles 


Interspinales  muscles 

Spinous  process  of  the  seventh  cervical 
vertebra — Processus  spinosus  ver- 
tebrae cervicalis  VII. 


Rotatores  longi / 

muscles 


Rotatores  tlorsi 

muscles 

Mm.  rotatores 

breves 

Third  rib 

Os  costale  III.- 

Multifidus  spinse 

muscle  (insertions) 

i\l.  muUifidus 

Spinous  process  of  the  third 
dorsal  vertebra 

Processus  spinusus  vertebras 
thoracalis  III. 


Rectus  capitis  lateralis  muscle  (origin) 
Obliquus  capitis  superior  muscle  (origin) 

■    Obliquus  capitis  inferior  muscle  (insertion) 

Insertions  of  the  transversalis  cervicis 
(longissimus  cervicis)  muscle 

Spinal  dura  mater 

Dura  mater  spinalis 


The  uppermost  slips  of  origin  of  the  com- 
plexus,  or  semispinalis  capitis,  muscle 


The  uppermost  slips  of  origin  of 
the  multifidus  spinse  muscle 
Slip  of  insertion  of  the  transversalis 
cervicis  (longissimus  cervicis)  muscle 
Slips  of  insertion  of  the  cervicalis  ascendens 
(iliocostalis  cervicis)  muscle 


Posterior  intertransversales  muscles 

Mm.  intertransversarii  posteriores 


Slips  of  origin  of  the  complexus, 
or  semispinalis  capitis,  muscle 

Tubercle  of  the  firFt  rib 
Tuberculum  costs;  I. 


Outer  row  of  insertions  of  the 
longissimus  dorsi  muscle 


Angle  of  the  second  rib 
Aneulus  costa;  li. 


Insertions  of  the  musculusaccessorius 
ad  iliocostalem  (iliocostalis  dorsi) 


Inner  row  of  insertions  of  the 
longissimus  dorsi  muscle 


Fig.  513. — Origin  and  Insertion  of  the  Long  and  the  Short  Muscles  of  the  Back  in 
THE  Cervical  and  Upper  Dorsal  Region.  Origin  of  the  Short  Posterior  Ckanio- 
vertebral  or  Suboccipital  Muscles.  Interspinales  Muscles.  Posterior  Intertrans- 
versales Muscles.     Rotatores  Longi  and  Rotatores  Dorsi  Muscles. 


Musculi  dorsi — Muscles  of  the  back. 


THE  MUSCLES   OF   THE   TRUNK 


273 


Mastoid  process 

rroctbsus  masioiileus 


Trachelomastoid  muscle 
M.  longissimus  capitis 

niulti£dus  spina  muscle 
M.  multilidus  ~-- 


Cervicalis  ascendens  mu3Cle 
M.  iliocostalis  cervicis 

Transversalis  cervicis  muscle  ., 

M.  longissimus  cervicis 


__  Superior  curved  line 
Li  Ilea  nuchre  superior 

Inferior  curved  line 
Linca  nuchae  inferior 

Complexus,  or  semispinalis  capitis, 
muscle  (outer  portion) 

Complexus,  or  semispinalis  capitis, 
muscle  (inner  portion) 


Spinalis  cervicis  muscle 


Semispinalis  colli  muscle 
M.  semispinalis  cervicis 


Longissimus  dorsi  muscle  (outer  row 

of  insertions)  '""■-"/ 


Longissimus  dorsi  muscle  (inkier 
row  of  insertions) 


Angle  of  the  seventh  rib 

Anguliis  cost;L'  \'ll 

Slips  of  insertion  of  the 
iliocostalis  (sacrolumbalis) 

muscle 
M.  iliocostalis  lumborum 


Musculus  accessorius 
ad  iliocostalem 

M.  iliocostalis  dorsi 

Rotatores  longi  and  rotatorcs 
dorsi  muscles 


Iliocostalis  sacrolumbalis)  muscle 
M.  sacrospinalis 

Iliocostalis  (sacrolumbalis)  muscle 
M.  iliocostalis 

Lumbar  fascia 

Fascia  lumboUorsalis 


Longissimus  dorsi  muscle  '' 
M.  longissimus 


Multifidus  spinse  muscle     ( 
M.  multilidus  V 


Spinous  process  of  the  first 

dorsal  vertebra 
Processus  spinosus  vertcLra; 
thoracalis  I. 


Transverse  process  of  the  sixth 

dorsal  vertebra 

Processus  transversus  vertebra? 

thoracalis  VI. 

Semispinalis  dcrsi  muscle 


.  Levatoies  costaium  muscles 
Mm.  levatores  costarum  breves 


.  _  Levatores  costarum  longiores 
muscles 
Mm.  levatores  costarum  longi 

Spinalis  dorsi  muscle 


Spinous  process  of  the  twelfth 

dorsal  vertebra 
Processus    spiiiosus    vertcbrar 
thoracalis  XII 
Intertransversales  laterales  muscles 
Mm.  intertransversarii  posteriores 
laterales 
Intertransversales  mediales  or 
interaccessorii  muscles 
Mm.  intertransversarii  posteriores 
mediates 


Spinous  process  of  the  fifth 
Itunbar  vertebra 

Processus  spinosus  vertebra? 
lumbal  is  V. 


Posterior  superior  spine  of 

the  ilium 

Spina  ili.aca  pusiirior  superior 

Dorsal  stirface  of  the  sacrum 
lacies  dorsalis  ossis  sacri 


Fi(..  5r.(. — Diagram   showing   thk   Origins  and   Insertions  or  the    Long  and  the   Short 

Muscles  of  the  Back. 


Musculi  dorsi—  Muscles  of  the  back. 


35 


274 


IHE   MUSCLES   OF   THE    TRUNK 


Infraclavicular  triangle,  or 

Mohrenheimer's  space 

Trif,'onum  cleltoideopectoralc 

Deltoid  muscle 

M.  deltoideus 


-Subclavius  muscle 


Clavicular  portion 

Tars  clavicularis 


Peotoralis  major 
muscle 


Sternocostal 
portion 

Pars  sterno- 
costalis 


Abdominal  portion 

Pars  abJominalis    ~ 

Serratus  magnus  muscle' 
M.  serratus  anterior 


External  oblique  muscle 

of  the  abdomen 

M.  obliquus  externus 

abdominis 


Poupart's  ligament 

Lig  inguinale  (Pouparti) 
External  or  superficial  abdominal 

ring 
Annulus  inguinalis  subcutaneus 

Spermatic  cord 
Funiculus  spermaticus — 

Saphenous  opening — 

Fossa  ovalis 


Pcctoralis  minor 
muscle 


Anterior  or  external 
Intercostal  aponeu- 
roses—  Ligg.  intercos- 
talia  externa 

Pectoralis  major 
muscle 


Biceps  flexor  cubiti 

muscle 
M.  biceps  brachii 


External  intercostal  muscles 
j  Mm.  intercostales  externi 

Aponeurosis  of  the  external 

oblique  muscle  of  the 
abdomen  (turned  inwards) 
^JIM  Aponeurosis  ra.  oblieiui 

externi  abdominis 

Sheath  of  the  rectus  abdominis 
muscle  I  anterior  layer) 

Internal  oblique  muscle  of  the 
abdomen 
M.  obliquus  internus  abdominis 


Aponeurosis  of  the  external 

oblique  muscle  of  the 

abdomen  (turned  outwards) 

Aponeurosis  m.  obliqui 

externi  abdominis 


Cremaster  muscle 
Suspensory  ligament  of  the 
penis 
Lig.  suspensorium  penis 


f  -■'■        'U 

Fig.  515. — The  Thor.\cic  and  Abdominal  Muscles  are  shown,  on  the  Right  Side  the 
MOST  Superficial  L.wer,  and  on  the  Left  Side  the  L.wer  immediately  bene.ath  this. 
Pectoralis  Major  and  Pectoralis  Minor  Muscles;  Subcl.wius  Muscle;  External 
AND  Internal  Oblku'e  Muscles  of  the  Abdomen. 


Musculi  thoracis  et  abdominis— Muscles  of  the  thorax  and  abdomen. 


THE   MUSCLES   OF   THE   TRUNK 


275 


Tendon  of  the  subclavius  muscle 
Pectoralis  major  muscle  lorigin 
of  the  clavicular  portion) 

Pectoralis  major  muscle  (origin 
of  the  sternocostal  portion) 

Body  of  the  second  rib 

Corpus  Costa.'  II. 


Pectoralis  minor  muscle 
(slips  of  origin) 


Serratus  magnus  muscle  / 
M  serratus  anterior 


Pectoralis  major  muscle  --;-' 
(sternocostal  portion) 


Ensiform  process 
I'rocessus  xiphoideus  " 

Cartilage  of  the  seventh  rib 
Cartila^u  cusialis  \'ll 


Linea  alba 

Sheath  of  the  rectus 

abdominir  muscle 

(posterior  layer) 


Transversalis  abdominis  m-iscle 
M.  transvcrsusabduminis 


Internal  oblique  muscle  of  the 

abdomen  (partially  removed) 

M    nlilii|iius  intermix  alxlominis 

Crest  of  the  ilium 

Crista  iliaca 

External  oblique  muscle 

of  the  abdomen         

M.  obliijims  c:\tcrniis 
abdominis 

Semilunar  fold  of  Douglas 
Linea  semiciicularis 
(|)oii(,'lasi) 
Anterior  superior  spine 
of  the  ilium 
Spina  iliaca  anterior 
superior 
Deep  circumflex  iliac  artery 
A.  circumflexa  ilium 
profunda 


Deltoid  muscle  (origin) 
M.  deltoideus 


Pectoralis  minor 
muscle  (.insertion) 


Pectoralis  major 
muscle  (inseition) 


Pectoralis  major  muscle 
(slips  of  origin  of  the 
sternocostal  portion) 
External  oblique  muscle  of  the 
abdomen  (slips  of  origin) 
M.  obliquiis  c'xtcrniis 
alxiuminis 

Rectus  abdominis  muscle 
(slips  of  origin)' 

Internal  intercostal  muscle 
M.  intercostalis  internus 

Transversalis  abdominis 
muscle  (origin) 

tran-^vir-us  alnk  minis 


Internal  oblique  muscle  of 

the  abdomen  (cut  edge) 

M.  obliquus  internus 

abdominis 

Parietal  layer  of  the 

peritoneum 
I'LTitonxum  parietale 

External  oblique  muscle  of  the 

abdomen  (cut  edge) — M  obli- 

cjuus  extcrnns  alxlnminis 

'External  umbilical 

ligament- 

Lig  liinbilicalc  laicrale 


Transversalis  fascia 
Fascia  transversalis 


Spermatic  cord 
Funiculus  spermaticus 

Cremaster  muscle 


Poupart's  ligament 

Lit;,  inj^uiiialr  (I'oupnrti) 
Internal  or  deep 
abdominal  ring 
.\nniiliis  ingninalis 
aluli'minalis 
Deep  or  inferior  epigastric  artery 
\.  tpiHastrica  inferior 
M.  interfoveolaris' 

Pubic  symphysis 
Sviiipliysis  ossium  pubis 

Tendon  of  the  rectus  abdominis  muscle 


SUpCTK  r  ' 


Pyramidalis  muscle  - 
Spine  of  the  pubis  ""X 

Ti;l)Lrculuin  pubicum 

By  EnKlish  .inatomijls  ihc  inferior  or  pubic  attaclinicnt  of  the  rectus  aUlominis  is  rcganlctl  a*  the  erigin  of  that  mUKlr,  anJ  ihc 


.1  il   itf-..  l.tnrnt  as  its  injir/wn. — Tr. 


s    \  .cular  filircs  in  the  posterior  w.ill  of  the  insiiinal  canal,  runniui;  parallel  » ilti,  hut  inlcrn.il  to,  the  spermatic  cord, 

and  an:^..      ;.  :  tu  that  portion  of  the  conjoined  tendon  known  as  the  //x'.twr«/«f«  m/r>/I»rvi'/«inf  or  li/^amrnt  t>/ lleuell'ach. 

This  nmsculor  slip  is  described  neither  by  t^uain  nor  by  Macalister.     It  is  figured  on  a  larger  scale  on  p.  jBSt  Section  tll.t  of  the  present 
work. — Tk. 

Fig.  516. — Origins  and  Insertions  01='  thk  Thoracic  and  Audominal  Muscles. 


Musculi  thoracis  et  abdominis     Muscles  of  the  thorax  and  abdomen. 


35- 


276 


THE   MUSCLES   OE   THE   TRUNK 


Abdominal  portion  of  the 
pectoralis  major  muscle 


Senatus  magaus  muscle 


Tendinous  intersections  f 

Inscriptiones  tendinea;   ( 


Internal  oblique  muscle 
of  the  abdomen 

IP' 

M.  obliqiuis  internus 
abdominis 

i 

Transversalis  abdominis   B 
muscle                 f  j 

■^JH.  trans 
l^Zversus 

Rectus  abdominis  muscle 
Internal  oblique  muscle- 
of  the  abdomen 

M.  obliqmis  internus 
abdominis 


Pyramidalis  muscle 

M.  p)Tamidalis 

Spermatic  cord 
Funiculus  spermaticus 

Suspensory  ligament  of 

the  penis 
Lig.  suspensorium  penis 

Cremaster  muscle 

M.  cremaster 


—  Bectus  abdominis  muscle 

—  ^  Internal  intercostal  muscles 
,.  /Mm.  intercostales  interni 

—  ")  External  intercostal  muscles 

/Mm.  intercostales  externi 

•    Linea  alba 


Sheath  of  the  rectus  abdominis 
muscle  (posterior  layer) 


0  -  Tranversalis  abdominis  muscle 


Umbilicus 

Linea  semilunaris  (Spigelii) 

Semilunar  fold  of  Douglas, 

or  plica  semilunaris 

Linea  semicircularis 

(Douglasi) 


Linea  alba 

Internal  obKque  muscle  of 
the  abdomen  (i) 

External  oblique  muscle  of 
_  the  abdomen  (-) 

^3  Internal  or  deep  abdominal 

ring  (3) 
Poupart's  ligament  (4) 
Transversalis  fascia 


Saphenous  opening 

1  o  isa  ovalis 


(i)  M.  obliquus  internus  abdominis 

(2)  M.  obliquus  externus  abdominis 

(3)  Annulus  inguinalis  abdominalis 

(4)  Lig.  inguinale  (Poupani) 


Fig.  517.— The  Arrangement  in  L.wers  of  the  Abdominal  Muscles  as  displayed  by 
Partial  Removal  of  the  Superficial  Layers.  The  Rectus  Abdominis  Muscle  of  the 
Left  Side  h.wing  been  cut  away,  the  Posterior  Layer  of  the  Sheath  of  that 
Muscle  is  exposed.  Rectus  Abdominis  Muscle;  Transversalis  Abdominis  Muscle; 
Pyramidalis  Muscle. 


Musculi  abdominis — Muscles  of  the  abdomen. 


THE   MUSCLES   OF   THE   TRUNK 


277 


Styloid  process 


Sternocleidomastoid  muscle 

M.  sternocleidomastniduiis 
Stylohyoid  ligament 
Lii,'.  styli'liyoideum 
Stylopharyngeus  muscle 

Splenius  capitis  muscle 

M.  splenius  capitis 

Levator  anguli  scapulas  muscle 

M.  levator  scapuUu 
Omohyoid  muscle  -M.  omnlnoirleu-i 


Subscapularis 
muscle 


Styloglossus  muscle 

Mylohyoid  muscle 

Hyoglossus  muscle 
-  Rectus  capitis  anticus  major  muscle 

M.  loiiKiis  capitis 
Thyropliaryngeal  portion  of  the  inferior  con- 
's  "  strictor  ol  the  pharynx    M-  iliyrc..|ili:iryiigi:us 

-\ Thyrohyoid  muscle-M-  ili)f>-'jliy""J'="* 

./ Thjnroid  cartilage 

Cartilaf,'o  tin  rcoidea 

—  Scalenus  medius  muscle 
—Thyroid  body     idaiuUila  thyreoidea 
Sternothyroid  muscle 

.M.  stiTiiotliyrt-'oiilciis 

Scalenus  posticus  muscle 

^j^  ^.:;ilMm--  i>'isI'-Tior 

—Scalenus  anticus  muscle 

M.  scalenus  .interior 

Scalene  space' 
Sternohyoid  muscl : 
M.  stfriiohvoideiis 

I  External  intercostal  muscles 
I  -Mm.  intercoslales  cxlciiii 


Internal  intercostal 

muscles 

Mm.  intercoslales  interni 


—  Rectus  abdominis  muscle 


Latissimos  dorsi  muscle 


Serratus  magnus  muscle 

Slips  of  origin  of  the  latissimus 

dorsi  muscle  from  the  tenth 

and  eleventh  ribs 


,    Hxterual  oblique  muscle 
of  the  abdomen 
M.  obliiiiuis  ixternus 
abdominis 


Fig.   51S.— Shrratl-s    Magnus   Muscle.     L.\tissimus   Dursi   and   Subscapularis   Muscli:.     The 
Three  Scalene  Muscles  and  the  "Scalene  Space.^     Levator  Anguli  Scapul.e  Muscle. 

■  This  is  a  trinngulAr  space,  the  l>.x»c  of  which  is  formed  by  the  upper  surface  of  the  first  rib,  the  .interior  w.ill  by  the  scalenus  amicus 
muscle,  and  the  posterior  wall  by  the  scilenus  medius  muscle.  It  is  occupied  by  the  brachial  plesas  .ind  the  iccond  lart  of  the  sul>clavi,in 
ttrlcrj'.™Tk. 


Musculi  thoracis — Muscles  of  the  thorax. 


278 


THE  MUSCLES   OF   THE   TRUNK 


Superior  curved  line   ^ 

Linea  nucha;  superior  \^ 

Splenius  capitis  muscle  (insertion)  ~~,f„,, 

Obliquus  capitis  superior  muscle 
Trapezius  muscle  (insertion)' "' 
Obliquus  capitis  inferior  muscle 

Levator  anguli  scapula  muscle  (slips  of  origin)    _ 

M.  levator  scapuhe 

Comploxus  muscle  (inner  portion) 
M.  semispinalis  capitis 

Complexus  muscle  (outer  portion) 
RI.  semispinalis  capitis 

Scalenus  medius  muscle 

Scalenus  posticus  muscle  (insertion) 

M.  scalenus  posterior 


Serratus  posticus  superior 
muscle  (slips  of  insertion)     « - 
M.  serratus  posterior  superior'.  '- 


Shaft  of  the  fifth  rib 
Corpus  costs;  V. 


Serratus  magnus  muscle 
(slips  of  origin) 
M.  serratus  anterior 
External  intercostal  muscles    ..- 
Mm.  iiitercostales  externi       ^  " 

Internal  intercostal  muscles 
Mm.  intercostales  interni 


Serratus  magnus  muscle 

(slips  of  origin) 

M.  serratus  anterior 


Serratus  posticus  inferior 

muscle  (slips  of  insertion) 

M.  serratus  posterior 

inferior 


Latissimus  dorsi  muscle  ■• 
(slips  of  origin) 


Occipitalis  muscle 

Sternocleidomastoid  muscle  (insertion) 
.M.  sternocleidomastoideus 
Mastoid  process 
'■'  Processus  mastoideus 

Trachelomastoid  muscle 

\  (insertion) 

~  M.  longissimus  capitis 


Stylohyoid  muscle 
M.  stylohyoideus 


-  Longus  colli  muscle 


Scalenus  anticus  muscle 

slips  of  origin) 

M   scalenus  anterior 

Scalenus  anticus  muscle  (insertion) 

M.  scalenus  anterior 

Subclavius  muscle  (insertion)'' 


Serratus  magnus  muscle  (the 

two  uppermost  slipsof  origin) 

'SI.  serratus  anterior 

Pectoralis  major  muscle 
'  (upper  part  of  the  origin 
of  the  sternocostal  portion) 


V    Pectoralis  minor  muscle 
(slips  of  origin) 


Pectoralis  major  muscle  (lower 
part  of  the  origin  of  the 
sternocostal  portion) 
Serratus  magnus  muscle 
(slips  of  origin) 
W.  serratus  anterior 
Rectus  abdominis  muscle 
(slips  of  origin)' 


.      #1  ^     External  oblique  muscle  of  the 
■'     J.£ --'-'-''-  abdomen  ; upper  slips  of  origin 
M.  obliquus  externus  abdominis 


Internal  intercostal  muscles 
J.'-'---  Mm.  intercostales  interni 


External  oblique  muscle  of  the  abdomen 
(lower  slips  of  origin) 
M.  obliquus  externus  abdominis 


-Tr. 


*  Origin  according  to  English  anatomists.     —  ,  it 

z  English  anatomists  regard  this  as  the  on^in  of  the  subclavius  muscle. — Tk. 
3  See  note  »  to  p.  275. 


Fig.  519.— Origins  and  Insertions  of  the  Muscles  on  the  Anterior  and  L.^teral  Walls 

OF  THE  Thorax.     Seen  from  the  Right  Side. 


Musculi  thoracis  et  abdominis — Muscles  of  the  thorax  and  abdomen. 


THE   MUSCLES   OF   THE   TliUNK 


279 


Rectus  capitis  lateralis  muscle 

Obliquus  capitis  superior  muscle 

Rectus  capitis  posticus  major  muscle 
M.  rectus  capiUs  posterior  major 
Obliquus  capitis  inferior  muscle  -- 


Rectus  capitis  posticus  minor  muscle 

M.  rectus  capitis  posterior  minor  ^'^  il-~"' 

Spinous  process  of  the  axis 

I'rocessus  spiiiosus  epistrophei 

Ligameutum  nuchse" 

Transverse  process  of  the  sixth  cervical  vertebra 
Processus  transversus  vertebra?  cervicalis  \'I. 

Scalenus  posticus  muscle 

M.  scak'iuis  posterior 

'Scalene  space' 

Aponeurotic  arch  for  the  origin 

of  the  uppermost  digitation  of 

the  serratus  magnus  muscle 


Fifth  rib 
Costa  V. 


External  intercostal  muscles 
Mm  intercostales  externi 


Interspinous  ligament 
Lig.  interspinalc 


Spinous  process  of  the  twelfth 

dorsal  vertebra 

Processus  spinosus  vertebra; 

thoracalis  XII. 


Interspinales  muscles  |  j 

Supraspinous  ligament 

Lis.  supraspiiiale 

Internal  oblique  muscle  of  the 

abdomen 
M.  obliquus  inlerniis  abdominis 


mastoid  process     Processus  mastoideiis 

Digastric  muscle  (posterior  belly) 
M.  digastricus  (venter  posterior) 

Mylohyoid  muscle 
-.\_        M.  myloliyoideus 


Digastric  muscle  (anterior  belly) 

M.  diyastricus  (venter  anterior) 


Accessory  slip  connecting 

.;,.the  anterior  bellies  of  the 

digastric  muscles  (var  ) 


_.__  Slips  of  oiigin  of  the  scalenus 
anticus  muscle 

Scalenus  medius  muscle 

Scalenus  pleuralis  (var.) 
M.  scalenus  minimus  (var.) 
Cervical  pleura 

Cupula  pleurx 

Scalenus  anticus  muscle  linsertiun) 
M.  scalenus  anterior 


Fectoralis  minor  (slips  of  origin) 


-  -   I  Internal  intercostal  muscles 
,,•    )  Mm.  intercostales  interni 


External  oblique  muscle 

of  the  abdomen 

M.  obli<juusextcrnus 

abdominis 


Aponeurosis  of  the  external  oblique 
muscle  of  the  abdomen 

Aponeurosis  m.  oliliipii  e.Merni 
abdominis 


Crest  of  the  ilium 
Crista  iliaca 

Gluteal  portion  of  the  fascia  lata 
Pascia  glut;ea 


'  See  note  to  p   J77. 

Fig.  520.— ^flTscl'I.I   lNTiiKcosT.\i.i:s   lixriiKNi,  Tin-:  Extern.at,  Intercostai,   Mpsclks;   ^^t'sc^I.l•s 

Ol?LIi,.>UlS     EXTERNUS    ABDOMINIS,     THE     EXTERNAI.    ObLI«1'E     MuSCLE     OP    THIC     AHHOMEN  ;    THE 

Scalene  Muscles,  with  thi;  Anomalous  Scalenus  Minimus  or  Scalenus  Pleuralis. 
Musculi  thoracis  et  abdominis  -  Muscles  of  the  thorax  and  abdomen. 


280 


THE   MUSCLES   OF   THE    TRUNK 


'_  ^  Internal  intercostal  muscles 
__"jMin.  interccstales  interni 


I  _2^  \  External  intercostal  muscles 
-l\_„^J  Mm.  intercostales  externi 

Anterior  superior  costotransverse 
ligaments 
ostotransvi 
anteriora 


__  ■^  Subcostal  muscles 
^  J  Mm.  subccstales 


^  Posterior  or  internal  intercostal 
aponeuroses 
Ligg.  intercostalia  interna 


Fig.  521. — The  Muscles  on  the  Inner  Surface  of  the  Lateral  Wall  of  the  Thorax, 
shown  on  the  -right  side  of  the  body,  the  diaphragm  having  been  removed  : 
Musculi  Intercostales  Intern  Internal  Intercostal  Muscles;  Musculi  Sub- 
ccstales, Subcostal  Muscles. 


Musculi  thoracis — Muscles  of  the  thorax. 


THE  MUSCLES   OF   THE   TRUNK 


281 


Interclavicular  ligament 
Lig.  interclaviculare 


Sternothyroid  muscle 

M.  stciMotliyreoiJeus 


Sternohyoid  muscle 
M.  sternohyoideus 

The  clavicle 

Clavicula 

First  rib 

Costa  I. 


Internal  intercostal  muscles 

.Mm.  iiucrcostalcs  inlL-rni 


Triangularis  stemi  muscle 
M.  transversus  thoracis 


Transversalis 
abdominis  muscle 


Sternal  portion  of 

the  diaphragm 

r.irs  sti-rnalis  «Sj94!>>— V- 

diaphraginatis        ^v^^v/v  ^i^ 


Sheath  of  the  rectus 

abdominis  muscle 

posterior  layer) 


Transversalis 

abdominis 

muscle 


Costal  portion  of 

the  diaphragm 

I'ars  costalis 

diaphragmatis 


Sheath  of  the 
rectus  abdominis 
muscle  (anterior 
layer)— \aj;ina 
m.  recti  abdominis 
(lamina  anterior) 


Internal  oblique 
muscle  of  the 

abdomen 
M.  oliliquus 

intern  us 
abdominis 


External  oblique 
muscle  of  the 

abdomen 

M.  olilii|uus 

cxternus 

abdominis 


Fig.  522. — The  Muscles  on  tiik  Inner  Sukf.vce  of  the  Anterior  W.m.i.  ui-  the.  Thorax. 

The  slips  of  oritfin  of  the  diaphragm  from  the  costal  cartilages  and  the  ensiforni  pioccss  have  been 
retained,  in  order  to  show  their  relation  to  the  shps  of  origin  of  the  transversalis  abdominis 
muscle.  The  anterior  wall  of  the  abdomen  has  been  divided  horizontally  at  the  level  of  the 
anterior  extremities  of  the  tenth  pair  of  ribs  to  show  the  relation  of  the  anterior  aponeuroses  of 
the  external  oblique,  internal  obli(|ue,  and  transversalis  muscles  of  the  abdomen  to  the  sheath  of 
the  rectus  nuiscic,  and  to  display  the  two  layers  of  this  shc.ilh.  The  Ir.insvcrsiis  thoracis  or 
trian};uhris  stcrni  muscle  and  the  origins  of  the  sternohyoid  and  sternothyroid  muscles  arc  also 
shown. 


Musculi  thoracis  et  abdominis     Muscles  of  the  thorax  and  abdomen. 


30 


282 


THE   MUSCLES   OF   THE   TRUNK 


Subcutaneous  bursa  of  the  laryngeal  prominence 

Bursa  subcutanea  prominentiaj  laryngerc  \ 

Deep  cervical  fascia  (superficial  layer) . 
I'ascia  colli  (lamina  supcrficialis' 
Platysma  myoides 


Subcutaneous  bursa  of  the  chin 

iBursa  subcutanea  prxmentalis 


Infraclavicular  triangle,  or 
Mohrenheimer's  space 

Trigonum  deltoideopectorale 
Deltoideopectoral  groove 

Sulcus  deltoideopectoralis 


Costocoracoid  membrane 

Fascia  coracocla\  icularis 


Cephalic  vein 

Vena  cephalica 

Deltoid  muscle 
•  M.  deltoideus 


Pectoralis  major  muscle 


Deep  layer  of 
_  the  pectoral 
fascia 


Aponeurosis 
of  the  arm,    imti  - 
or  brachial 
fascia 


Superficial  layer 

of  the 
pectoral  fascia 

Sternalis  muscle  (var. ) 


Axillary  fascia 

Fascia  axillaris 


Pectoralis  major  muscle 


Superficial  layer  of  the  pectoral  fascia 


Fig.  523. — The  Fascia  of  the  Anterior  Wall  of  the  Thorax,  Fascia  Pectoralis,  the 
Pectoral  Fascia,  and  its  Connexions  with  the  Fascle  of  the  Adjoining  Regions  of 
THE  Body.     The  Anomalous  Sternalis  Muscle. 

On  the  right  side  of  the  body,  the  skin  and  the  superficial  fascia  ha\ing  been  rcmo\-cd,  the  superficial 
layer  of  the  pectoral  fascia  is  displayed,  and  its  continuity  with  the  aponeurosis  of  the  arm  is 
shown ;  on  the  left  side,  the  greater  part  of  the  pectoralis  major  tnuscle  has  been  removed,  in 
order  to  display  the  deep  layer  of  the  pectoral  fascia,  with  its  specialized  band,  the  costocoracoid 
membrane,  and  to  show  the  continuity  of  this  deep  hiyer  with  lire  axillary  fascia.  ' 


Musculi  thoracis     Muscles  of  the  thorax. 


THE  MUSCLES   OF   THE   TRUNK 


283 


Aponeurosis  of  the  arm, 
or  brachial  fascia 

Kascia  brachii 


The  axilla,  or  armpit 


Posterior  fold  lor  wall) 

of  the  axilla 
(Border  of  the  latissimus 

dorsi  muscle) 
Plica  axillaris  posterior 


Fascia  of  the  latissimus 
dorsi  muscle 


Pectoral  fascia 

Fascia  pcctorali: 


X 


Anterior  fold  (or  wall) 

of  the  axilla 
Border  of  the  pectoralis 

major  muscle 
rlica  axillaris  aniorior 


_ Foramina  for  the  emergence 
'    of  the  cutaneous  vessels 
and  nerves 


•Axillary  arch 


Superficial  layer  of 
the  pectoral  fascia 

Fascia  pccloraiis 
(lamina  superficialis) 


i^'^ 


I-'iG.  524. — The  Axii.i.a  wnii  the  Anterior  and  Posterior  Axillary  Folds,  Plica 
Axillaris  Anterior  et  Plica  Axillaris  Posterior.  Fascia  Axillaris,  the  Axillary 
Fascia,  with  the  *  Axillary  Arch  of  Lancer. 

The  axillary  fascia  forms  the  base  or  inferior  boundary  of  the  axillarj-  fossa.     The  cutaneous  vessels 

and  nerves  have  been  removed. 


Musculi    thoracis  -Muscles    of  the   thorax. 


36—2 


284 


THE   MUSCLES   OF   THE    TRUNK 


Spinous  process 

I'rocessus  spinosus 


Transverse  process 
Processus  transversus 


Deep  dorsal  muscular  layer  of  the  trunk 

•; .  Superficial  dorsal  muscular  layer  of  the  trunk 

Posterior  primary  division  of  spinal  nerve 

Ramus  posterior  nervi  spinalis 

Anterior  primary  division 
~^,         -  of  spinal  nerve 

Ramus  anterior  nervi  spinalis 


Eib    . 

Costa 


\    ,      Ventral  (subcostal) 
i&  \  „-  musctilar  layer  of 


the  trunk 


Ventral  (intercostal) 
•    muscular  layer  of 
the  trunk 


Muscular  layer  belonging 
to  the  extremities  lor 
appendicular  layer) 


Skin 

nteffumentum  commune 


\  Ventral  (subcostal)  muscular 
layer  of  the  trunk 

Fig.  525. — Diagrammatic  Representation  of  the  Muscles  of  the  Trunk  and  of  the 
Distribution  of  the  Segmental  Nerves  by  which  they  are  supplied,  shown  in  a 
Thoracic  Segment. 

NOTE. 

A  brief  explanation  of  this  diagram  seems  needful,  in  the  interest  of  students  who  have  not  made  a  special  study  of  comparative 
anatomy.  The  muscles  are  grouped,  first  of  all,  into  dorsal  and  ventral,  the  former  being  supplied  by  the  posterior  and  the  latter  by  the 
anterior  primary  divisions,  respectively,  of  the  spinal  nerves.  The  dorsal  muscles  form  the  great  mass  lying  chiefly  in  the  hollow  between 
the  spinous  processes  and  the  angles  of  the  ribs.  They  are  classed  in  two  group.s — superficial  and  deep.  These  need  not  be  further 
considered.  The  ventral  muscles  are  shown  to  be  arranged  in  three  layers.  In  the  abdominal  region  these  are  represented  by  three 
actual  muscles,  to  name  them  from  within  outwards :  the  transversalis,  the  internal  oblique,  and  the  external  oblique.  Continuous  with  the 
deepest  of  these,  the  transversalis,  for  the  purposes  of  this  classification,  are  the  triangularis  sterni,  the  subcostals,  the  sternal  and  costal 
portions  of  the  diaphragm  and  part  of  the  levator  ani— these  form  the  siihcostal  layer.  Continuous  with  the  internal  oblique  are  the  intcr- 
costals,  the  posterior  serrati,  the  scalene  muscles,  and  the  quadratus  lumborum — these  form  the  intercostal  layer.  Continuous  with  the 
e.vternal  oblique  are  all  the  muscles  connecting  the  scapula  with  the  trunk,  viz.:  the  trapezius,  levator  anguli  scapulae,  serratus  magnus, 
and  rhomboidei  muscles,  also  the  iatissimus  dorsi,  the  pectorals,  the  sternocleidomastoid,  and  the  superficial  perineal  muscles— these 
constitute  what  may  he  called  the  appendic»Iar\a.yi^T.  There  is  finally  a  more  superficial  layer  still  (not  shown  in  the  figure),  superficial 
indeed  to  the  deep  fascia,  corresponding  to  the  panniculosus  carnosus  of  lower  mammals,  but  represented  in  man  only  by  the  platysma 
myoides,  the  occipitofrontalis,  and  the  muscles  of  the  ear  and  face. — Tr. 


Musculi  trunci— Muscles  of  the  trunk. 


THE  MUSCLES   OF   THE   TRUNK 


285 


Posterior  layer  of  the  lumbar  fascia' 
Fascia  lunibodors.ilis 

Middle  layer  of  the  lumbar  fascia' 

Li;,',  lumbocostale  ; 

Ouadratus  lumborum  muscle  ; 

Fatty  tissue 

Transversalis  fascia 


Latissimus  dorsi  muscle 


Iliocostalis  or  sacrolumbalis  muscle 

Costal  process  of  the  fourth  lumbar  vertebra 

Processus  cosiariiis  vciieliia'  lutnhalis  1\'. 

Longisslmus     Multifidus  spinse  muscle 
;  dorsi  muscle  „   .  ,»,     ^t-   % 

'  Spmous  process  of  the  third 

lumbar  vertebra 
I'rocessiis  spinosus 
vertebra; 
lumbalis  III.       > 


Erector  spins  muscle 


Upper  surface  of  the  tody  of 
the  fourth  lumbar  vertebra 


Transversalis  abdominis  muscle 
M.  tr.'insvtTsus  alxloniinis 
Internal  oblique  muscle  of  the  abdomen ; 
M.  obbi|uiis  iiitcTtuis  alwloniinis  ; 

External  oblique  muscle  of  the  abdomen 
M.  obli(|iius  L-.Nternus  abitnniinis  i 

Superficial  fascia 
Skin 
Integumentum  commime 


Rectus  abdominis  muscle 

Posterior  layer    i 
Lamina  anlerior  ' 


Linea  alba 
Umbilicus 


Anterior  layer 

I^amina  postLTior 


Sheath  of  the  rectus  abdominis  muscle 
Vagina  m.  recli  abdominis 

'  In  conncjiion  wilh  ihis  fiKiiTc,  an  account  of  the  difTcrences  I-elwecn  ihc  author's  nomenclature  of  the  fawrix  or  the  Unrk  and 
alMlnnitri  iind  the  nomuncl.'tturt:  commonly  employed  Iiy  linplish  anatomists  may  most  .luitably  be  given.     'Vhc  ltiitth,ir /if  \ 

I-.  niifsi  ICii^tisli  authors,  is  ie;;.ir(Icd  as  conststinK  of  three  hiyers.     The  su/'crthinl nr  fifsUriitr  layer,  called  hy  loldt  (sec  I  ' 

lumbtiilarstxlis,  is  the  laver  passing  behind  the  composite* mass  of  the  erector  spin.!:  muscle  to  l)C  attached  to  the  lips  of  ih--  -i 
(^ec  note  to  i>.  367).     'I  he  niiiiiiU  tayt-r,  called  hy  'loldt  (see  Fig.  526  on  this  page  and  also  Fig.  512  on  p.  771) 

passes  in  front  of  the  erector  spin.x-,  Itetween  that  mu>cb-  and  the  quadratus  Itimbo'um,  to  he  altachetl  to  the  li;  1 

transverse^  prtcesses  of  the  lumbar  veitebne.     At  the  outer  edge  of  the  erector  spin;c  muscle  the  posterior  ai"i  ' 

the  |)oslenor  aponeurosis  of  the  tninsvcr*alis  alHluminis  muscle.  The  tmUrwr  /iiytr  o/'  t/u  hiittlitr/asciit  (calhd  \\  I  -Mt  '  '  .7  .;.  ■  i.  .■>) 
is  the  th  n  menthrane  lying  on  the  anterior  surface  of  the  tpiadratus  Iuml>orum  muscle.  At  the  inner  etlgcof  this  mus<  Ic  it  is  attathrd  to 
the  .uii'ii  r  surfaces  of  the  costal  processes  ot  the  lumbar  vertehr.t,  and  at  the  outer  edge  of  the  muscle  it  is  contiiuions  with  the  tt<ins- 
r    ■  t.  the  membrane  lining  the  deep  surface  of  the  transversalis  altdominis  muscle.     The  tcrm.AiJc/<»  luinlui/it  is  applied  hy 

'I  '■  fascia  covering  the  abdominal  surface  of  the  psoas  muscle,  but  by  English  anatomists  this  membrane  i.s  regarded  as  a 

I-  iiac  /ascia. — Tm. 

Kn3.  526.— '["UK  Stkatikication  of  the  Mu.sci.es  of  the  Trunk  and  of  their  Associated  Fasci.*:,  dispi-ayei)  in 
A  Horizontal  Section  of  the  Richt  Half  of  the  Body-Wai.i..  The  Connexions  iietween  the  Anterior 
Aponeuroses  of  the  Wide  Muscles  of  the  Abdomen  and  the  Sheath  of  the  Rectus  are  shown. 

The  section  was  made  in  n  frozen  body  at  the  level  of  Ihc  navel,  and  p.issed  posteriorly  through  the  intervertebral  disc 

between  the  third  and  fourth  lumUir  vertebra;. 


Musculi  trunci    -Muscles  of  the  trunk. 


286 


THE  MUSCLES   OF   THE   TRUNK 


Sternal  portion— Pars  stemalis  a 


Central  tendon- 
Centrum  tendineum 


Caval  opening,  or  foramen 
quadratum 

Foramen  vena;  cavae 


Inner  cms,  or  pillar' 
Crus  mediale 
Intermediate  crus,  or  pillar'  — 
Crus  intermedium 

Outsr  crus,  or  pillar 
Crus  laterale 
External  arched  ligament,  or 
ligamentum  arcuatum  exter- 
num—Arcus  lumbocostalis 
la'.eralis  (Halleri) 

Psoas  magnus  muscle 

M.  psoas  major 

Quadratus  lumborum  muscle 


..Costal  portion 

Pars  costalis 
(Esophageal  opening 

Hiatus  ccsophageus 

Vertebral  portion 

Pars  lumbalis 


~^  Aortic  opening 

""" Hiatus  aorticus 

Internal  arched  ligament,  or 
ligamentum  arcuatum  interniun 
Arcus  lumbocostalis  medialis 
(Halleri) 
Twelfth  rib 
Costa  XII. 
Middle  layer  of  the  lumbar  fascia 
Lig.  lumbucostale 


Fourth  lumbar  vertebra — Vertebra  lumbalis  IV. 

Fig.  527. — View  of  the  Diaphragm  with  its  Crura  from  Below.     (Abdominal  Aspect.) 


Eleventh  dorsal  vertebra— Vertebra  thoracalis  XI. 


Fig.  528.- 


Twelfth  rib 
J^y  Costa  XII. 

*^"\  Vertebral  portion 

^V  Pars  lumbalis 

Aortic  opening 

Hiatus  aorticus 
Central  tendon- 
Centrum  tendineum 
(Esophageal  opening 

Hiatus  a?sopbas;eus 

■^^S^BSL   T  Caval  opening,  or  foramen 

quadratum 
Foramen  \  en;e  cava; 
Costal  portion 
Pars  costalis 
-  Base  of  the  pericardium 
Basis  pericardii 

Seventh  rib 
"Costa  VII. 

'A 


Sternal  portion 

Pars  stcrnalis 

■  The  crura,  or  pillars,  of  the  diaphr.iKm  descril)ed  by  English  anatomists  are  two  onlj-  in  number,  a  longer  right  cms  and  a  shorter 
Ic//  cms.  Itlach  of  these  is  composed  of  all  the  fibres  passing  from  the  right  and  left  sides,  respectively,  of  the  bodies  of  the  lumbar  vertebras 
and  the  intervertebral  discs  to  the  central  tendon.  Thus,  the  cms  of  English  authors  corresponds  to  the  combined  intur  crus  and  inter- 
mediate  cms  of  Toldt ;  while  the  outer  cms  of  the  latter  is  in  England  not  considered  to  belong  to  the  crural  portions  of  the  diaphragm. 
— Tk. 

2  Called  also  the  trefoil  or  cordi/orm  tendon  of  the  diaphragm. — Tn. 

-View  of  the  Diaphragm  from  Above,  with  the  Basal  Portion  of  the  Pericardium. 

(Thoracic  Aspect.) 


Diaphragma— The  diaphragm,  or  midriff. 


THE  MUSCLES   OF   THE   TRUNK 


287 


Base  of  the  pericardium 
Basis  pericardii 


Body  of  the  sternum 
(.manubrium/ 
Corpus  sterni 


Sterual  portion 
Pars  stemalis 


Costal  portion 

I'ars  tobtalis 


.  Caval  opening,  or  foramen 
quadratum 

roramcn  \Lna'  cava; 

Central  tendon 

Cenlriim  tendineum 

(Esophageal  opening 
Hiatus  oesopliageus 


Twelfth  rib 
Costa  XII. 
Vertebral  portion 

Pars  lumbalis 


Aortic  opening 
Hiatus  aorticus 
First  lumbar  vertebra 
Vertebra  lurabalis  I. 


Fig.  529. — The    Diaphuagm   in    Median-Sagittal    Section,    the    Ric.iit    Halt    sei:n    fkom 

Within.     Drawn  from  a  Dry  Preparation. 

The  abdominal  surface  of  tlu-  diaphrajjni  was  first  cleaned  by  dissection  and  then  niven  a  coaling  of 
liquid  plaster  of  Paris.  When  this  had  been  allowed  to  harden,  the  thoracic  surface  of  the  inusclo 
was  exposed  and  similarly  coated  with  plaster  of  I'aris.  In  this  manner  the  natural  shape  was 
as  far  as  possible  preserved. 


Diaphragma-The  diaphragm,  or  midrilT. 


288 


THE  MUSCLES   OF   THE   TRUNK 


Fourth  sacral  vertebra 

Vertebra  sacralis  IV. 


...Coccygeus  or  levator 

coccygis  muscle 
Sacrococcygeus  anticus  or 
curvator  coccygis  muscle 
M.  sacrococcygeus  anterior 

First  coccygeal  vertebra 

Vertebra  coccygea  1. 


Fig.  530. — MuscuLUS    Sackococcvgeus    Anterior,    Sacrococcygeus    Anticus    or    Curvator 

Coccygis  Muscle. 


First  coccygeal  vertebra 

Vertebra  coccygea  I- 
,\     I,  Sacrococcygeus  posticus  or 

V-  \\,^  :v. i   .        extensor  coccygis  muscle 

'  *'       '  Posterior  or  great  sacrosciatio 

ligament 

Lig-  sacrotuberosum 

-.,. Coccygeus  or  levator 
coccygis  muscle 


■Levator  ani  muscle 

.Obturator  fascia 

Fascia  obturatoria 
-  Tuberosity  of  the 
ischium 
Tuber  ischiadicum 


Fig.  531. — MuscuLus   Sacrococcygeus   Posterior,   Sacrococcy'geus   Posticus   or  Extensor 
Coccygis  Muscle;  Coccygeus  or  Levator  Coccygis  Muscle. 


Musculi  sacrococcygei — Sacrococcygeal  muscles. 


MUSCULI   COLLI   ET  CAPITIS 

THE  MUSCLES 
OF  THE   HEAD   AND  NECK 


37 


290 


THE  MUSCLES   OF   THE  HEAD   AND   NECK 


Zygomaticus  major  muscle 
M.  zygomaticus 


Buccal  fat-pad^ 

Corpus  adiposum  buccse 


-Risorius  muscle 

Depressor  anguli  oris  or 
triangularis  menti  muscle 

M.  triangularis 


Platysma  myoides 

Platysina 


^  Sometimes,  but  inappropriately,  named  the  sucking-fad. — Tr. 

Fig.  532. — The  Platvsma  Myoides  of  the  Right  Side. 


Musculi  colli -Muscles  of  the  neck. 


THE  MUSCLES  OF   THE  HEAD  AND  NECK 


291 


Parotideomasseteric  fascia' 

I'oicia  parotidoomasseterica 


Sternocleidomastoid  muscle 
M.  slernocleidomastoideus 


Deep  layer  of  the  deep  cervical  fascia 

Lamina  profunda  fasci.r  colli 


Sternocleidomastoid  muscle 
M.  sternocleidomastoideus 

Trapezius  muscle 
Deep  layer  of  the  deop  cervical  fascia 

lamina  I'rofurul.i  f;t^ri;u  colli 


Supsrficial  layer  of 
the  pectoral  fascia 


Platysma  myoides 
riatvsma 


Deep  layer  of  the  deep 
w-         cervical  fascia 
/         Lamina  profunda 
fascia;  colli 

Superficial  layer  of  the 
deep  cervical  fascia 


Anterior  region  of  the  neck 

Kegio  colli  anterior 


Deep  layer  of  the  deep 
cervical  fascia 

Lamina  profunda 
fascia.-  colli 


Platysma  myoides 
Platysma 


<  '  i 


'  In  England,  the  portion  of  the  deep  cervical  fascia  covering  the  parotid  gland  is  usually  distinguished  as 
the  faroliil  f.i.cui :  ili  it  covcrinu  the  masseter  muscle,  as  the  massJaic  /ii.'./j. — Tr. 

F'C">-  533- — Fascia  Colli,  the  Drep  Cervical  Fascia,  oisplaved  on  the  Right  Side  of  the 
Neck  by  the  Removal  or  the  Platysma  Myoides. 


In  those  places  in  which  the  deep  layer  of  the  fascia  is  clearly  difierentiated  from  the  superficial  layer, 
the  latter  has  been  partially  removed.  The  submaxillary  gland  has  been  taken  away,  and  the 
middle  portion  of  the  sternocleidomastoid  imisrlc  has  been  cut  out,  to  lay  bare  in  each  case  the 
deep  layer  of  the  fascia  ;  between  the  cut  ends  of  the  sternoclcitlomastoid.  and  between  the  lower 
portion  of  this  must  le  and  the  trapezius,  the  anterior  and  posterior  bellies  respectively  of  the 
omohyoid  muscle  arc  visible  beneath  the  deip  layer  of  the  fascia. 


Musculi  colli  — Muscles  of  the  neck. 


37—2 


292 


THE  MUSCLES   OF   THE   HEAD   AND   NECK 


Deep  layer  of  the  deep 

cervical  fascia 

Fascia  colli 

(lamina  profunda) 

Trapezius  muscle  - 


Stylohyoid  ligament 

Lig.  stylohyoideum 

Stylohyoid  muscle     - 

M.  stylohyoideus 

Digastric  muscle  (posterior  belly) 

M.  digastricus  (venter  posterior) 

Prevertebral  fascia 

Fascia  prasvertebralis 

Sternocleidomastoid  muscle 

M.  sternocleidomastoideus 


Mylohyoid  muscle 

•^    M,  mylohyoidtus 

Styloglossus  muscle 
Digastric  muscle  lanterior 
belly) — W.  digastricus 
(venter  anterior) 
Hyoid  bone— C)s  hyoideum 
Tli3rrohyoid  muscle~M.  iliyicohyoideiis 
Thyropiaryngeal  portion  of  the  inferior  con- 
strictor of  the  pharynx— M.  thvreopharyngeus 
Omohyoid  muscle  (anterior  belly) 
M    cm  h\    1  lens  (venter  superior) 

Thyroid  body 

Glandula  thyreoidea 

Sternothyroid  muscle 

M    sternothyreoideus 

Sternohyoid  muscle 

M.  bternohyoideus 


Fig.  534. — The  Muscles  of  the  Front  of  the  Neck,  shown  on  the  Right  Side  of  the 
Body.  M.  Sternocleidomastoideus,  Sternocleidomastoid  Muscle  ;  M.  Digastricus, 
Digastric  Muscle;  the  Relations  of  the  Latter  to  the  Stylohyoid  and  Mylohyoid 
Muscles.  Portions  of  the  Muscles  arising  from  the  Styloid  Process,  of  the 
Lower  Muscles  of  the  Tongue,  and  of  the  Trapezius  Muscle,  are  displayed. 

In  the  preparation  of  the  muscles  both  the  superficial  and  the  deep  layers  of  the  deep  cervical  fascia 
have  been  removed,  except  in  the  posterior  triangle  of  the  neck,  where  the  deep  layer  has  been 
left  intact. 


Musculi  colli— Muscles  of  the  neck. 


THE  MUSCLES   UF   THE   HEAD   AND   NECK 


293 


Sternocleidomastoid  muscle - 


Stylopharyngeus  muscle 

Stylohyoid  ligament 
1-ij;.  stylc->liyoiilcum 
Splenius  capitis  muscle 

middle  constrictor  of  the  pharynx 
M.  constrictor  pharyn<;is  mediiis 

Rectus  capitis  anticus  major  muscle 

M.  Icingiis  capitis 

Levator  anguli  scapulae  muscle 
M    levator  scapul.-f 


Scalenus  medius  muscle 

Scalenus  anticus  muscle 
M.  sc.ilcniis  anterior 

Trapezius  muscle 

Deep  layer  of  the  deep 

cervical  fascia 

Lamina  profunda 

fasi  ia-  colli 

Deltoid  muscle  '^ 


Infraclavicular  triangle,  or 

Mohrenheimer's  space 

Trigonum  dtltoidcopectorale 


'  Uasseter  muscle 


Depressor  anguli  oris 

or  triangularis  menti 

muscle 

M    triangularis 

^Styloglossus  muscle 

'  Mylohyoid  muscle 
HyogloEEUs  muscle 

Thyrohyoid  muscle 
M.  thyreohyoideus 
Omohyoid  muscle  (anterior  belly) (i) 
Thyropharyrgeal  portion  of  the  in- 
ferior constrictor  of  the  pharynx 
M    lh\T(-0[)liaryngeiis 
SternoLyold  muscle-  M.  Mirn..hyuidcu5 
Sternothyroid  muscle 
M.  sternothyreoideus 


Longus  colli  muscle 


'  M-  stcrnoclei0o=      ^ 
/:^ast0rdmjs-'v> 


,  Sternothyroid  muscle 

M    steri'otlivreoidctis 


Sternocleidomastoid  muscle 

(i)  M.  omohyoidcus  (venter  superior) 


l'i<^-  535-— T'"-  Muscles  of  the  Neck,  displaykd  on  the  Right  Side,  the  Sternocleido- 
mastoid, Digastric,  and  Stylohyoid  Muscles  having  been  removed.  The  Infrahyoid 
Group  of  Muscles,  Sternohyoid,  Sternothyroid,  Thyrohyoid,  and  Omohyoid.  The 
Mylohyoid  Muscle,  the  Anterior  and  Middle  Scalene  Mi'Scles,  and  the  Levator 
Anguli  Scapul.^e  ;  Portions  of  the  Muscles  of  the  1'ace,  and  of  the  Deep  Lateral 

and    PREVERTEliRAL    MuSCLES    OF    THE    NeCK. 


Musculi  colli— Muscles  of  the  neck. 


294 


THE   MUSCLES   OF   THE   HEAD   AND   NECK 


Internal  oblique  line, 
or  mylohyoid  ridge 

Linea  mylohyoidea 


Mylohyoid  muscle 

M    mylohyoideus 

..Geniohyoid  muscle 

M.  geniohyoideus 


of  the  hyoid  bone 

ossis  hyoidei 


Fig.    536. — M.    Mvlohyoideus,    the 
Left   Side   together   forming 


Mylohyoid    Muscle,    the    Muscles    of    the    Right    and 
A   Floor   below   the  Anterior  Part  of  the  Mouth,  the 


Diaphragma  Oris,  and  the  Geniohyoid  Muscle,  seen  from  Above  and  Behind 


Small  cornu  of  the  hyoid  bone, 

Cornu  minus  ossis  hyoidei        \ 


Stylohyoid  ligament — 
Lig.  stylohyoideum 


Great  cornu  of  the  hyoid  bone 

Cornu  majus  ossis  liyoidei 

Th3rrohyoid  membrane,  or  middle 

thyrohyoid  ligament 

Membrana  hyothyreoidea 


Bursa  of  the  thyrohyoid  muscle'  .>^'  ' 
Bursa  musculi  thyreohvoidei 

Thyrohyoid  muscle  (lower  portioni-- 

M.  thyreohyoideus 

Inferior  constrictor  of  the  pharynx   .--' 

M.  constrictor  pharyngis  inferior 

Cricothyroid  muscle. 

M.  cricothyreoideus 


/Thyrohyoid  muscle  (divided  and  turned  upwards) 
••  M    thyreohyoideus 

—  Body  of  the  hyoid  bone 

Corpus  ossis  liyoidei 


r-:    (  Sternohyoid  muscles  (turned  upwards) 
/  Mm.  sternohyoidei 

Bursa  of  the  sternohyoid  muscle- 
'"'I'lursa  musculi  sternohyoidei 


Thyroid  cartilage 

'Cartilago  thyreoidea 


Cricothjrroid  membrane,  or  middle 

cricothyroid  ligament 
Lig.  cricothyreoideum  (medium) 


Trachea 

Trachea 

'  The  ^«rfa  tf/" Mr  M^-wAytflV  »i/«c/tf,  either  single  or  double  (the  latter  in  the  present  instance),  is  situate  beneath  the  thyrohyoid 
muscle  on  the  anterier  surface  of  the  ih  jTohyoid  membrane,  extern.^1  to  the  bur^a  of  the  sternohyoid  muscle. — Tr. 

2  The  i'ursa  0/ the  sterjwhyoid  iiniscte  is  situate  beneath  the  upper  extremity  of  the  sternohyoid  muscle  and  in  front  of  the  thyrohyoid 
membrane,  close  to  the  median  line. — Tr. 

Fig.  537.— The  Burs.e  below  the  Hyoid  Bone.  The  Sternohyoid  and  Thyrohyoid  Muscles 
have  been  divided  transversely,  and  the  Portions  of  these  Muscles  left  attached 
to  the  Hyoid  Bone  have  been  turned  upwards.  Seen  obliquely  from  the  Right  Side 
and  Before. 

Musculi  colli— Muscles  of  the  neck. 


THE   MUSCLES   OF   THE   HEAD   A.\D   NECK 


295 


Sphenoidal  sinus 

Sinus  splienoidalis 
Eustachian  cartilage 
Cartilago  tubac  auditivaj 


Carotid  canal 
Canalis  caroticus 


Levator  paiati  muscle 

(origin) 
M-  levat'jr  Vfli  pnlatini 
Circumflezus  or  tensor 
paiati  muscle  (origin) ... 
I\I.  tensor  \'eli  palatini 
Pterygoid  process 
t'rocessus  plerygoideus 

Hamular  process 
Hamulus  plerygoideus 


'^^i^^-l/^-^i   ._>*     —External  pterygoid  muscle 
\^^^^W  i  'i^  ^^-  P^ery-^oidcus  c.\l(.-rnus 


,«  -  Internal  pterygoid  muscle 

M   plerygoideus  internus 


Interartlcular  disc,  or  meniscus 

I  liscus  arlicularis 
.K^  '  Capsular  ligament  (i) 
*       Head  of  the  condyle 
/     Capituhini  mnndiiiiilx' 


Genioglossus  or 
geniohyoglossus  muscle 
Geniohyoid  muscle 

M   geniohyoideus 


Mylohyoid  muscles 

Median  raphe  of  the  mylohyoid 

muscles 

Raphe  m.  mylohyoidei 


(i)  Cap&uU  orltcubris 


Body  of  the  hyoid  bone 
Corpus  ossis  hyoidei 

Fig.   538. — M.    Myi.ohyoideus,    the    Mylohyoid    Muscle,    the    Right   and    Left    Muscles 

FORMING     the      DiAI'HKAGMA     OkIS,      SEEN      FROM      AliOVE     AND      BEHIND.       TlIE     PTERYGOID 

Muscles,   External    and   Internal,   are   displayed,  both  Intact  on  the  Right  Side, 

WHILE    ON    THE    LeFT     SiDE     THE     INTERNAL     PTERYGOID     MuSCLE     HAS     BEEN     REMOVED     IN 

order  to  lay  i3ake  in   its   wliole  extent  the  posterior  surface  of  the  exticrnal 
Pterygoid  Muscle. 

The  levator  paiati  and  the  circumtlcxus  or  tensor  palali  muscles  have  been  cut  away  close  to  their 

respective  origins. 


Musculi  colli  et  capitis —Muscles  of  the  head  and  neck. 


296 


THE   MUSCLES   OF   THE  HEAD   AN-D   NECK 


Styloglossus  muscle 


Hyoglossus  musc.e 


Lingualis  inferior  or  inferior 

lingual  muscle 

M.  longitudinalis  inferior 


Genioglossus  or 
"geniohyoglossus  muscle 


—Geniohyoid  muscle 

II.  geniohyoideus 


.  Cricothyroid  muscle 

M.  cricothvreoideus 


Fig.  539— The  Muscles  of  the  Tongue,  with  the  Geniohyoid  Muscle,  seen  from  the  Right  Side :  the 

HVOGLOSSUS,    the    STYLOGLOSSUS,    AND    THE    GENIOGLOSSUS    OR    GENIOHVOGLOSSUS    MUSCLES.      ALSO   THE   THYRO- 
HYOID AND  Cricothyroid  Muscles. 


Body  of  the  mandible 
Corpus  mandibulas 


Edge  of  the  tongue 
Margo  lateralis  linguae 


Lingualis  inferior  or 
inferior  lingual  muscle 

M.  longitudinalis  inferior 

Hyoglossus  muscle 

(cut  away) 
M.  hyoglossus 


Styloglossus  muscle  • 


Middle  constrictor 
of  the  pharynx 
M.  constrictor 

pharyngis  medius 


Ceratopharyngeus     - 
muscle 

M.  ceratopharyngeus  

Chondropharyngeus  muscle  " 

M.  chondropharyngeus 

Great  comu — Cornu  majus  ' 

Stylohyoid  ligameuj 
Lig.  stylohyoideum 


Genioglossus  or 
geniohyoglossus  muscle 

M.  genioglossus 


Transversalis  linguae  muscle  or 

transverse  muscle  of  the  tongue 

M.  transversus  linguae 

;,  Chondroglossus  muscle 


Membranous  connexion  of  the 
geniohyoglossus  muscle  with 
the  body  of  the  hyoid  bone 
--  Body  of  the  hyoid  bone 

Corpus  ossis  hyoidei 


!  Small  comu 

Cornu  minus 


Fig.  540.— The  Muscles  of  the  Tongue  seen  from  the  Right  Side  and  Below,  displayed  by  the  Re.moval 
OF  the  Hyoglossus  Muscle:  M.  Longitudinalis  Inferior,  the  Inferior  Lingual  Muscle  ;  M.  Transversus 
(vel  Transversalis)  Lingu/E,  thr  Transver.sk  Muscle  of  the  Tongue,  and  iis  Relation  to  the  Genio- 
hyoglossus Muscle;  the  Chondroglossus  Muscle. 


Musculi  colli  et  capitis— Muscles  of  the  head  and  neck. 


THE   MUSCLES   OF   THE  HEAD   AND   NECK 


297 


Levator  anguli  oris 
muscle,  or  musculus 

caninus  '"  ■    ' 

Parotid  duct  or  duct  oi 

Steuson 

Ductus  p.iroiklcii!; 

Zygomaticus  maj.r 
muscle  (cut  away)  -. 
M.  zygomaticus 

Buccinator  muscle 
M.  buccinator 


Depressor  anguli  oris  or 
triangularis  menti  muscle     ^ 
(cut  away! 
M.  triangularis 


Circumflexus  or  tensor  palati  muscle 

M.  tensor  veli  palatini 

Levator  palati  muscle 

M.  levator  veli  palatini 

Stylopharsmgeus  muscle 
Digastric  muscle  (posterior  belly) 
M    ilif,'astiicii.s  (venter  posterior) 
Hamular  process— Hamulus  ]  tcrygoidoiis 
Superior  constrictor  of  the  pharjrnz 
M.  constrictor  pharyn^is  superior 
Pterygomaxillary  or  pterygomandibular 
ligament—  Kaphe  plerygomandibulari 

Styloglossus  muscle 
Stylohyoid  muscle 
M.  stylohyoideus 


Middle  constrictor  of  the  pharyn 
M.  conslrictor  pliaryngis  medius 


Digastric  muscle  (anterior  belly) 
M,  digastricus  (venter  anterior) 

Mylohyoid  muscle 

M    mylohyoideus 

541.— The  Muscles  arising  from  tme  Styloid  1'rocess  with  the  Digastric  Muscle;  the  Circumflexus 
OR  Tensor  Palati,  the  Levator  Palati,  and  the  Buccinator  Muscle;  seen  from  the  Left  Side. 

The  ramus  of  the  jaw  has  been  removed. 


Spinous  process  of  the  sphenoid  bone 

Spina  angnlaris 

Pterygoid  process 
Processus  pterygoideus 


Sphenomaxillary  fossa 

Possa  ptcrygnpalatina 

Circuirflexus  or  tensor  palati  muscle 
(origini-  M.  tensor  vi-li  palatini 

Tuberosity  of  the  superior  maxillary  bone 
Tuber  maxillaro 

Cut  edge  of  the  external 
pterygoid  plate 

Bursa  of  the  hamular  process  _ 
Pursa  m.  tensoris  veli  palatini 

Circumflexus  or  tensor  palati  (insertion* 
M    tensor  veli  palatini 


Vestibule  of  the  labyrinth 

'' VcstibnUini  lab\Tintlii 

Tympanic  orifice  of  the  Eustachian  tube 
■    Ostium  tynipanicuin  tuba.'  auditiv.x' 

-  Foramen  ovale 

Petrous  portion  of  th3  temporal  bone 

I'ars  jictrosa  ossis  temporalis 

Levator  palati  (origfin) 

M.  levator  veli  palatini 
Fascia  salpingopharyngea,  ormembranoua  portion  of  the 
Eustachian  tube     I.amina  nienibranacea  tuba  auc!iti\a.' 
Eustachian  cartilage     Cartilni;.)  tulxr  auditiv.-c 
Pharyngeal  orifice  of  the  Eustachian  tube 
Ostium  pharyngeum  tuba:  auditiva.- 

Levator  palati  muscle  (insertion) 
~  M.  levator  veli  palatini 

—  Soft  palate 

Velum  palatinum 


Hamular  process 
Hamulus  pterygoideus 


Fig.  542.-ORIGIN  AND  Insertion  ok  the  Circumflexus  or  Tensor  Palati  Muscle  and  of  the  Levator  I'alati 
Muscle,  with  the  Synovial  Bursa  of  the  Hamular  Process,  seen  from  ihk  Left  Side. 


Musculi  colli  ct  capitis— Muscles  of  the  head  and  neck. 


38 


298 


THE   MUSCLES   OF   THE   HEAD   AND   NECK 


Basilar  portion  of 

the  occipital  bone 

Pars  basilaris 

ossis  occipitalis 


Petrous  portion  of 
the  temporal  bone 
Pars  petrosa 
ossis  temporalis 


Styloid  process 

Processus  styloideus        v- 

Mastoid  process  ^-' 

Processus  mastoideus 

Kectus  capitis  auticus 

major  muscle 

M.  longus  capitis 


Cervical  pleura 

Cupula  pleurae 


Rectus  capitis  lateralis  muscle 
Digastric  muscle  (posterior  belly) 

M.  digastricus  (venter  posterior) 


Anterior  tubercle  of  the  atlas 
Tuberculum  anterius  atlantis 

Rectus  capitis  anticus  major  muscle 

M.  longus  capitis 


Levator  anguli  scapulae  muscle 

M.  levator  scapula; 


Longus  colli  muscle 


Scalenus  medius  muscle 


Scalenus  anticus  muscle 
M.  scalenus  anterior 

Scalenus  posticus  muscle 
M,  scalenus  posterior 


Scalene  space' 


Eminence  for  the  attach- 
ment of  the  serratus 

magnus  muscle 
Tuberositas  costae  II. 


7. 


Fig.  543. — The  Deep  Lateral  and  Prevertebral  Muscles  of  the  Neck,  displayed  by 
THE  Removal  of  the  Facial  Portion  of  the  Skull  and  the  Cervical  Viscera.  Seen 
FROM  Before.  Scalenus  Anticus,  Medius,  and  Posticus  Muscles  ;  Longus  Colli 
Muscle  ;  Rectus  Capitis  Anticus  Major  Muscle.  The  Relation  of  the  Scalene 
Muscles  and  the  Longus  Colli  Muscle  to  the  Cervical  Pleura.  The  Scalene 
Space.^ 

'  See  note  to  p.  277. 


Musculi  colli — Muscles  of  the  neck. 


THE  MUSCLES   OF   THE  HEAD  AND  NECK 


299 


Basilar  portion  of  Petrous  portion  of 

the  occipital  bone  the  temporal  bone 

Pars  basilaris    ,  Pars  petrosa             L., 

ossis  occipitalis  j  ossis  temporalis          '^ 


Rectus  capitis  anticus  minor  muscle 
M.  rectus  capitis  anterior 


Bectus  capitis  lateralis  muscle — ^ 


Posterior  intertransversales  muscles/ 
Mm.  interlransversarii  postcriores     \ 


Anterior  intertransversales  muscles 
Mm.  mtertransversarii  aiueriores     I 


Insertion  of  the  scalenus 
medius  muscle 


Groove  for  the  subclavian  artery 
Sulcus  subclavic.T- 

Insertion  of  the  scalenus 
anticus  muscle 


Insertion'  of  the  .— 
subclavius  muscle 

First  costal  cartilage 
Cartilage  costalis  1. 


I  Anterior  intertransversales  muscles 
JMm,  interlransversarii  ;uiteriorc'S 


Longus  colli  muscle 

Scalenus  medius  muscle 


Scalenus  posticus  muscle 
.\I   scalenus  posterior 


'  English  anatomists  regard  this  as  the  origin  of  the  subclavius  muscle. — Tk. 

I'lc.  544. — The  Deep  Lateral  and  Pkevektebkal  Muscles  of  the  Neck,  the  Rectus 
Capitis  Anticus  Major  and  Scalenus  Anticus  Muscles  having  been  removed.  On  the 
Right  Side  the  Longus  Colli  and  the  Scalenus  Medius  and  Posticus  Muscles 
have  also  heen  removed.  Seen  prom  Before.  Intertransversales  Muscles  ; 
Rectus  Capitis  Anticus  Minor  and  Rectus  Capitis  Lateralis  Muscles. 


Musculi  colli — Muscles  of  the  neck. 


38—2 


300 


THE   MUSCLES   OF   THE   HEAD  AND   NECK 


Pericranium 
Orbicularis  palpebrarum  muscle 
(orbital  portion) 
M.  orbicularis  oculi  (pars  orbitalis) 
Corrugator  supercilii  muscle  . 


Orbicularis  palpebrarum  (palpebral 

portion) 
M.  orbicularis  oculi  (pars  palpebralis) 
Internal  tarsal  or  palpebral  ligament 
Lig.  palpebrale  mediale 

Pyramidalis  nasi  muscle'..  .  . 

M.  procerus 

Levator  labii  superioris 

alseque  nasi 

Caput  angulare 

Levator  labii  superioris 

propius 

Caput  infra-orbitale 

Zygomaticus  minor 
Caput  zygomaticum 


M.quadratus 

labii 

superioris- 


Depressor  labii  inferioris  or 
quadratus  menti  muscle 

M.  quadratus  labii  inferioris 


Epicranial  or  occipitofrontal 
.'  aponeurosis 


__  Frontalis  muscle 
Skin 

^  Integumentum 
commune 


Auricularis  superior  or 
-    attollens  auriculam 
muscle 


Auricularis  anterior  or 

attrahens  auriculam 

muscle 


Parotideomasseteric  fascia' 
Levator  ang;uli  oris  muscle, 
or  musculus  caninus 
_  Zygomaticus  major  muscle 
M.  zygomaticus 

Eisorius  muscle 

Depressor  anguli  oris  or 
triangularis  menti  muscle 

M.  triangularis 


Platysma  myoides 

Platysma 


Transversus  menti  (var. 


1  The  fyramidalis  nasi  muscle  (ilusculus  procerus)  is  regarded  by  the  author  as  a  portion  of  the  occipitofrontalis 
muscle. — Tr. 

"  In  England  the  levator  labii  superioris  alieque  nasi,  the  levator  labii  superioris  proprius,  and  the  zygomaticus  minor, 
are  regarded  as  three  separate  muscles,  not,  as  in  the  nomenclature  of  the  German  Anatomical  Society,  as 
the  three  heads,  the  angular  head,  the  infra-orbital  head,  and  the  zygomatic  head,  respectively,  of  a  single  muscle, 
the  quadratus  labii  superioris. — Tr. 

2  See  note  to  p.  291. 

Fig.  545. — The  Superficial  Layer  of  the  Muscles  of  Facial  Expression  and  their 
Relation  to  the  Platysma  Myoides.  Depressor  Anguli  Oris  or  Triangularis  Menti 
Muscle;  Risorius  Muscle;  Zygomaticus  Major  Muscle;  Levator  Labii  Superioris 
Al^que  Nasi,  Levator  Labii  Superioris  Proprius,  and  Zygomaticus  Minor  Muscles 
{see  note  ^  above)  ;  Orbicularis  Palpebrarum  Muscle.  The  Anterior  Portions  of  the 
Occipitofrontalis  Muscle — the  Frontalis  and  the  Pyramidalis  Nasi  Muscles  [see 
note  ^  above).  Auricularis  Superior  or  Attollens  Auriculam  and  Auricularis  Anterior 
or  Attrahens  Auriculam  Muscles.  The  Epicranial  Aponeurosis;  the  Pericranium; 
the  Parotideomasseteric  Fascia  {see  note  ^  above).  Seen  obliquely  from  the  Left  Side 
AND  Before. 


Musculi  faciei — Muscles  of  the  face.^ 

•■  See  note  '  on  page  303. 


THE  MUSCLES   OF  THE  HEAD   AND  NECK 
Comigator  supercilii  musclei 


301 


Orbital  portion  of  the  orbicularis, 
palpebrarum  muscle 

Palpebral  portion  of  the  orbicularis 
palpebrarum  muscle 


Levator  anguli  oris  muscle, 

or  musculus  caninus 

M.  caninus 


Pyramidalis  nasi  muscle 

M.  procerus 

Internal  tarsal  or  palpebral  ligament 

I,if>.  palpcbralc  meiliale 

Fasciculus  of  the  orbicularis  palpebrarum 

muscle  inserted  into  the  skin  beneath  the 

inner  commissure  of  the  eyelids 
Nasalis  muscle' 
M.  nasalis 

Levator  labii  superioris 

alseque  nasi  muscle- 

Capul  annulare  m.  ijuadrati 

labii  superioris 


Vi 

•  This  consists  of  the  compressor  naris  muscle  and  of  the  outer  part  of  the  depressor  ala  nasi  muscle  of  English 
anatomists. — Tr. 

-  See  note  -  to  p.  300. 

Fig.  546. — Thh  Attachment  of  the  Orbicularis  PALPEBRARU\f  Muscle  in  the  Neighbourhood 
OF  THE  Inner  Canthus,  and  its  Relation  to  the  Corkugator  Supercilii  Muscle,  seen 
FROM  Before.     Right  Side. 


Corrugator  supercilii  muscle 


Palpebral  portion  of  the 

orbicularis  palpebrarum 

muscle 


Frontal  sinus 

Sinus  frontalis 


Orbital  arch,  or  supra- 
orbital margin 

Marno  orbitalis  superior 

Puncta  lachrymalia 
Tensor  tarsi  muscle ' 
rarslacrimalis(M.  Horneri) 

Lachrymal  sac 

Saccu^  lacrimalis 
"  Lachrymal  groove 
Fossa  sacci  lacrimalis 


Maxillary  sinus,  or 

-antrum  of  Highmore 

Sinus  maxillaris 


Orbital  portion  of  the  orbicularis 
palpebrarum  muscle 

Fig.  547.— The  Three  Portions'  of  the  Orbicularis  Palpebrarum  Muscle,  and  the  Relation 
OF  THIS  Muscle  to  the  Corrugator  Supercilii  Muscle,  seen  from  Behind.     Left  Side. 

The  soft  p.irts  in  tlic  ncinhbourliootl  of  tlie  eyelitls,  with  the  exception  of  the  ()ri),'in  of  the  orbicularis 
prilpebrarum- muscle,  have  been  dctaclicd  from  the  bone ;  and  by  the  removal  of  the  conjunctiva, 
the  tarsal  cartilages,  and  the  palpebral  fascia  (septum  orbitalc),  the  orbicularis  muscle  has 
been  laid  bare  from  behind. 

'  Called  also/i'rs  lachrymalis  musculi  orUctitaris  f^lfelrarum,  Horner's  muscle,  or  musculus  sacci  UichrymciUs. — Tr. 
'  These  three  portions  being  the  orbital,  palpebral  and  lachrymal  portions:  the  last-mentioned,  however,  is 
by  English  anatomists  usually  described  as  a  distinct  muscle,  the  tensor  tarsi  (sec  also  note  % — Tr. 


M.  orbicularis  oculi     Orbicularis  palpebrarum  and  tensor  tarsi  muscles. 


302 


THE  MUSCLES   OF   THE  HEAD   AND   NECK 


Pericranium 


Tensor  tarsi  muscle' 

Pars  lacrimalis 

M.  orbicularis  oculi 

(M.  Horneri) 


Levator  labii  superioris 
proprius- 
Caput  inlra-orbitale 
M-  qiiadrati  labii  superioris 
Compressor  naris  muscle 
M.  nasalis 
(pars  transversa) 
Zygomaticus  major  muscle 
M.  zygomaticus 

Depressor  alae  nasi 
muscle  (outer  parti 
M.  nasalis  (pars  alaris) 
Levator  anguli  oris  muscle, 

or  musculus  caninus 
Parotid  duct  or  duct  of  Sten 
son  -  Ductus  parotideus 
Buccopharyngeal  fascia 
Fascia  buccopharyngea 


Depressor  labii  inferioris  oi 

quadratus  menti  muscle 

M.  quadratus  labii 

inferioris 


Epicranial  or  occipito- 
-    frontal  aponeurosis 
Galea  aponeurotica 


jif  __Superficial  layer  of  the 
temporal  fascia 

Occipitalis  muscle 

Auricularis  posterior  or  re- 
trahens  auriculam  muscle 
Transversus  nuchas 
muscle  (var.) 

Masseter  muscle  (superficial 
portion) 

Sternocleidomastoid  muscle 

M   sternocleidoraastoideus 


Splenius  capitis  muscle 


Buccal  glands 

Glandulae  buccales 


Platysma  myoides 
Platvsma 


'  See  notes  ^  and  *  on  p.  301. 


-  See  note  -  on  p.  300. 


Fig.  54S. — The  Deep  Layer  of  the  Muscles  of  Facial  Expression  with  the  Masseter 
Muscle,  displayed  by  the  Removal  of  the  Levator  Labii  Superioris  Aljeque  Nasi, 
Levator  Labii  Superioris  Proprius,  Zygomaticus  Minor,  and  the  Depressor  Anguli 
Oris  or  Triangularis  Menti  Muscles,  of  the  Parotideomasseteric  Fascia,  and  of 
the  Parotid  Gland:  Levator  Anguli  Oris  Muscle,  or  Musculus  Caninus;  Depressor 
Labii  Inferioris  or  Quadratus  Menti  Muscle  ;  Compressor  Naris  and  Depressor 
Alje  Nasi  Muscles.  Occipitalis  Muscle.  Epicranial  or  Occipitofrontal  Aponeurosis; 
Pericranium  ;  Temporal  Fascia  and  Anterior  Portion  of  Buccopharyngeal  Fascia. 
Left  Side. 


Musculi  faciei — Muscles  of  the  face.^ 

^  See  note  '  on  p.  303. 


THE  MUSCLES   OF  THE   HEAD   AND   NECK 


303 


Pericranium 


Compressor  naris  muscle 

M.  na-;aUs   pirs  transversa) 

Incisivus  superior  muscle 

M    incisiviis  labii  superioris 
Dapressor  alse  nasi  muscle  (outer 

parti      M.  il.i-..lls(pars  ,ll.lri,l  ''>^SS 

Depressor  alae  nasi  muscle  (inner  ^>  vv!< 

part)     M.  (li-prc^'.or  <cpli  \^~ 


I'K 


Orbicularis  oris  muscle 


Levator  labii  inferioris  or 

levator  menti  muscle 

M.  mentalis 


Superficial  layer  of  the 
temporal  fascia 


Deep  layer  of  the 
temporal  fascia 

Levator  anguli  oris  muscle, 
or  musculus  caninus 


Masseter  muscle  (deep  portion) 


Zygomaticus  major  muscle 

(cut  away) 

M    zygomaticus 

Buccinator  muscle 


Incisivus  inferior  muscle 

M.  incisiviis  labii  inferioris' 


Risorius  muscle  (cut  away) 
Depressor  anguli  oris  or  triangularis  menti  muscle  (cut  away) 
M.  triangularis 
Pepressor  labii  inferioris  or  quadratus  menti  muscle  (cut  away) 

M.  (jnadratus  labii  inferioris 


.  549.— Thu  Dehp  Layer  ok  the  Muscles  of  Facial  Expuession,  and  the  Relation  of 
THE  Orbicularis  Oris  Muscle  to  the  Adjoining  Muscles.  Seen  obliquely  from 
Before  and  the  Left  Side.     Buccinator  Muscle,  the  Buccopharyngeal  Fascia  having 

BEEN  dissected  OFF;  ACCESSORY  SlIPS  OF  THE  ORBICULARIS  OrIS  MuSCLE  KNOWN 
RESPECTIVELY    AS    InCISIVUS    SUPERIOR   AND    InCISIVUS    INFERIOR    MuSCLES  ;     LEVATOR    LaHII 

Inferioris  or  Levator  Menti  Muscle;  Compressor  Naris  Muscle';  Depressor  Al^e 
Nasi  Muscle';  Levator  Anguli  Oris  Muscle,  or"  Musculus  Caninus.  The  Deep 
Portion  of  the  Masseter  Muscle,  displayed  by  the  Partial  Removal  of  the  Larger 
Superficial  Portion.     Pericranium  ;  Temporal  Fascia. 


'  The  principal  differences  between  the  author's  grouping  of  the  facial  muscles  and  that  usual  in  England 
is  shown  In  the  following  table  : 


English. 


Compressor  naris  muscle 

Depressor  ala:  nasi  muscle  (  ""'";':  P^" 
'^  \  mner  p.art 

levator  labii  superioris  al.xque  nasi  muscle 

Levator  labii  superioris  proprius  muscle 

Zygomaticus  minor  muscle 


Toldt's 

{/viHtr  '^^  noinenctitturc  i</ the 
CertnaH  A  natomicat  Society). 

=  pars  transversa  |  ^        ,;  „^,i^ 

=  pars  alaris  ( 

=  musculus  depressor  septi. 

=  caput  angularc  \ 

^  caput  infra-orbitale  J-  musculi  quadrat!  labii  superioris. 

_=  caput  zvKomaticum  | 

— Tr. 


Musculi  faciei     Muscles  of  the  face  {sec  note  abow). 


304 


THE  MUSCLES   OF   THE  HEAD    AND   NECK 


Depressor  alse  nasi  muscle  (oute'"  part) 
M.  nasalis  (pars  alans' 
Depressor  alse  nasi  muscle  (inner  part) 

M.  depressor  septi 


Incisivus  superior  muscle 

M.  incibuub  labii  siiperioris 


Buccinator  muscle   M  b  u 


Depressor  labii         ''  ^ 
inferioris  or  quadratus    , 
menti  muscle 


Levator  anguli  oris 

muscle,  or 
musculus  cauinus 
M    caniniis 
"  Orbicularis  oris 
muscle 


— Buccinator'muscle 


Orbicularis  oris 
muscle 


Transversus  menti  muscle  (var. ) 
M.  trans\ersus  menti  (var.) 

Levator  labii  inferioris  or  levator  menti  muscle 

M.  mentalis 


Mucous  membrane  of  the  mouth 
Tunica  mucosa  oris 
Incisivus  inferior  muscle 

M.  incisivus  labii  inferioris 


Fig.  550. — Orbicularis  Oris   Muscle,  and  its  Relation  to  the  Adjoining   Muscles,  seen 

FROM  Behind. 

The  soft  parts  in  the  neighbourhood  of  the  mouth  and  the  cartilaginous  portion  of  the  nose  were 
together  detached  from  the  bone,  and  the  muscles  laid  bare  from  behind  by  the  removal  of  the 
mucous  membrane  of  the  mouth.  On  the  right  side,  a  narrow  stiip  of  mucous  membrane, 
passing  outwards  from  the  angle  of  the  mouth,  has  been  retained,  to  show  the  partial  attachment 
thereto  of  the  buccinator  and  orbicularis  oris  muscles. 


M.  orbicularis  oris— Orbicularis  oris  muscle. 


THE   MUSCLES   OF   THE  HEAD  AND  NECK 


305 


Inner  part  of  the  depressor 

alse  nasi  muscle 

M.  depressor  septi 


Orbicularis  oris  muscle - 


Labial  glands 
Glandulx-  labiales 


Mucous  membrane  of  the  mouth  . 

Tunica  mucosa  oris 


Sebaceous  glands 

Glandulaj  sebacex 


Skin 

Integumentum  commune 


Scattered  fasciculi  of  the 
orbicularis  oris  muscle 


Fig.  551. — Sagittal  Section  through  the  Middle  of  the  Upper  Lip,  showing  the 
Situation  in  the  Lip  oe  the  Orbicularis  Oris,  and  the  Shape  of  that  Muscle  in 
Cross-Section. 

Numerous  thin  fasciculi  of  tlic  muscle  are  shown  radiating  to  the  skin. 


M.  orbicularis  oris — Orbicularis  oris  muscle. 


39 


306 


THE  MUSCLES   OF   THE   HEAD   AND   NECK 


Temporal  fascia  (superficial  layer) 

Fascia  temporalis  (lamina  superficialis) 


Frontal  bone- 


Parietal  bone 
Temporal  muscle 
Occipital  bone 


Temporal  fascia  (deep  layer) 
Fascia  temporalis  (lamina  profunda) 


Zygoma 

Processus  zygomaticusi  ossis  temporalis 


Fig.  552. — Tempor.\l  Muscle,  displayed  on  the  Left  Side  of  the  Head,  after  Partial 
Removal  of  the  Zygomatic  Arch,  by  dissecting  off  the  Superficial  and  Deep  Layers 
OF  THE  Temporal  Fascia. 


Tip  of  the  coronoid  process,  seen 
through  the  tendon  of  insertion 
of  the  temporal  muscle 
Slip  to  the  temporal  muscle  . 
from  the  zygomatic  arch 

External  oblique  line 

Linea  obliqua  mandibulffi 

Buccinator  muscle 

M.  buccinator 


Incisivus  superior 

M.  incisivus  labii  inferioris 


Levator  labii  inferioris  or  - 
levator  menti  muscle 
M    mentalis 
Mental  foramen 

Foramen  mentale 


Temporal  muscle 

r^  M.  temporalis 

Head  of  the  condyle 

Capitulum  mandibulae 
Sigmoid  notch 
Incisura  mandibula; 

'_  Masseter  muscle  (deep  portion) 
M.  masseter  (pars  profunda) 


'_  Masseter  muscle  'superficial  portion) 
M.  masse  te    (pars  superficialis) 


Platysma  myoides 
Platysma 


Depressor  anguli  oris  or  triangularis  menti  muscle 
\      M,  triangularis 
Depressor  labii  inferioris  or  quadratus  menti  muscle 
M.  quadratus  laliii  inferioris 


Fig.  553. — Attachment  of  Muscles  to  the  Outer   Surface  of  the    Inferior   M.axillary 

Bone.     Left  Side. 


Musculi  masticatorii— Muscles  of  mastication. 


THE   MUSCLES   OF   THE  HEAD  AND  NECK 


307 


/' 


Infratemporal  crest 
Crisla  infratemporalis 


Capsular  ligament 
Capsula  ariicularis 


Interarticulardisc  or  meniscus 
"■Discus  articularis 


Superior  and  inferior  heads  of 
the  external  pterygoid  muscle 


Internal  pterygoid  muscle 
JI.  pterygoideus  internus 


Fig.  554. — MuscuLi  Pterygoidei,  hxterxus  i:t  Internus,  External  and  Internal  Pterygoid 
Muscles,  displayed  by  the  Removal  of  the  Zygomatic  Arch  and  of  a  Portion  of  the 
Ramus  of  the  Inferior  Maxillary  Bone.     Seen  from  the  Left  Side. 

The  temporomandibular  articulation  lias  been  opened,  in  order  to  show  the  insertion  of  some  of  the 
fibres  of  the  superior  head  of  the  external  pterygoid  muscle  into  the  anterior  border  of  the  inter- 
articular  fibiocartiiage  and  the  capsular  ligament  of  the  articu'ation. 


Temporal  muscle 
M.  temporalis 


Interarticular  disc  or  meniscus 
Discus  articularis  / 

Head  of  the  condyle 

Capitiilum  mandibuUx 

External  pterygoid  muscle 
M.  pterygoideus  externus 


Mandibular  or  inferior  dental  foramen 

I-ur.imen  niindibulare 


Mylohyoid  groove 

Sulcus  mylohyoideu 


Internal  pterygoid  muscU 
M.  pterygoideus  internus 


Buccinator  crest 
Crisla  bucciuatdiia 

Pterygomaiillary  or  pterygomandibular  ligament 

Raphe  pterygomandibularis 

.  Buccinator  muscle 


Genioglossus  or 
geniohyoglossus  muscle 

Mental  spine 

Si'iua  meiualis 


Mylo'jyoid  muscle 
M.  myloliyoideus 


Geniohyoid  muscle 

M    ^;ciiioliyoiilcu3 

Digastric  muscle  (anterior  belly) 
M.  digastricus  (venter  anterior) 


Fi<~-  555- — Attachment  di    Muscles  to  the  Inner  Surface  of  the  Inferior  Maxillary  Hone. 

RicHT  Side. 


Musculi  masticatorii     Muscles  of  mastication. 


39—2 


308 


THE   MUSCLES   OF   THE  HEAD   AND  NECK 


Masseter  muscle  (superficial  portion) 
Masseter  muscle  (deep  portion) 


Slip  to  the  temporal  muscle 
from  the  zygomatic  arch 


Temporal  muscle 

M.  temporalis 

External  pterygoid  muscle 

M.  pterygoideds  externus 

Internal  pterygoid  muscle 

M.  pterygoideus  internus 

Circumflexus  or  tensor 
palati  muscle 

M.  tensor  veli  palatini 
Levator  palati  muscle 
M.  levator  veli  palatini 

Styloglossus  muscle  '' 
Stylohyoid  muscle-' 
M.  styloliyoideiis 
Stylopharyngeus  muscle' 

Rectus  capitis    - 
lateralis  muscle 

Sternocleidomastoid  muscle 

M.  sternocleidomastoideus 

Digastric  muscle  (posterior  belly) 
M.  digastricus  (venter  posterior) 


Trachelomastoid  muscle 

M.  longissimus  capitis  '  V 


Splenius  capitis  muscle' 


Obliquus  capitis  superior  muscle 

Rectus  capitis  posticus  major  muscle 

M.  rectus  capitis  posterior  major 

Rectus  capitis  posticus  minor  muscle 

M.  rectus  capitis  posterior  minor 

Complexus,  or  semispinalis  capitis,  muscle 

M.  semispinalis  capitis 

Trapezius  muscle 


Internal  pterygoid  plate 

Processus  pterygoideus 
(lamina  medialis) 

External  pterygoid  plate 

Processus  pterj-goideus 
(lamina  lateralis) 
Infratemporal  crest 
Crihta  inlratemporalis 

Membranous  portion  of  the 

Eustachian  tube 

Lamina  membranacea 

tubffi  auditivae 

Eustachian  cartilage  (outer 

fold) — Cartilago  tub:E 
auditiva:'  (lamina  lateralis) 

Eustachian  cartilage  (inner 
fold) — Cartilago  tuba; 
auditiva;  (lamina  medialis) 
Spinous  process  of  the 
sphenoid  bone 
Spina  angularis 
Styloid  process 
Processus  styloideus 

--  Mastoid  process 
Processus  mastoideus 

Digastric  fossa 

Incisura  mastoidea 

Crest  for  the  rectus  capitis 

posticus  major  muscle 

Crista  m.  recti  capitis 

posterioris  majoris 

~_.  Inferior  curved  line 
Linea  nucha;  inferior 

Crest  for  the  rectus  capitis  posticus 

minor  muscle — Crista  m,  recti 

capitis  posterioris  minoris 

Superior  curved  line 

Linea  nuclia-  superior 


\  Rectus  capitis  anticus  major  muscle 
,        'M.  longus  capitis 
Rectus  capitis  anticus  minor  muscle 
M.  rectus  capitis  anterior 


External  occipital  protuberance 

Protuberantia  occipitalis  externa 


Fig.  556. — Basis  Cranii  Externa,  External  Aspect  of  the  Base  of  the  Skull.    Areas  of 
Origin  and  Insertion  of  the  Muscles  attached  to  the  Base  of  the  Skull. 

The  muscular  attachments  are  shown  on  the  right  side  only  of  the  base  of  the  skull ;  the  bony 

prominences,  etc.,  on  the  left  side. 


Attachment  of  Muscles  to  the  External  Aspect  of  the  Base  of  the  Skull. 


MUSCULI   EXTREMITATIS 
SUPERIORIS 

THE  MUSCLES 
OE  THE   UPPER  EXTREMITY 


310 


THE  MUSCLES   OF    THE   UPPER  EXTREMITY 


Supraspinatus  muscle 
Spine  of  the  scapula      /^^^^piiTa's 

I.  SHk^''"'' 

Infraspinatus  muscle 

Teres  minor  muscle 
Teres  major  muscle 


Triceps  extensor  cubiti  muscle 

M.  triceps  brachii 


E  The  clavicle 


Acromion 


Deltoid  muscb 


Biceps  flexor  cubiti  muscle 

fij  M.  biceps  bracliii 


Eracbialis  anticus  muscle 
M.  brachialis 


Fig.  557. — M.  Deltoideus,  Deltoid  Muscle,  of  the  Right  Side,  Dorso-External  Aspect, 
SHOWING  ITS  Relations  to  the  Adjoining  Muscles  of  the  Shoulder  and  of  the 
Upper  Arm. 


Musculi  articulationis  humeri — Muscles  of  the  shoulder. 


THE  MUSCLES   OF   THE    UPPER   EXTREMITY 


311 


Subcutaneous  bursa  of  the  acromion 

Bursa  subcutanca  aoromialis 
Acromion 
Acromion     -.-^ 


Skin 


Intcgumentum  commune —  yi^^'^^y^^-t^J 


Subdeltoid  or  subacromial  bursa' — 
Bursa  subdeltoidea 

Infraspinatus  muscle  — 


Teresnninor  muscle  -—-J 


Acromial  or  scapular  extremity  of  the  clavicle 

Extrcmitas  acmmialis  clavicular 

Deltoid  muscle  (origin) -M.  deltoidcus 


Coraco-acromiai  ligament 
Lig,  coraco-acromiale 

The  clavicle 


—Subclavius  muscle 
Pectoralis  minor  muscle 


Teres  major  muscle 


Middle  or  long  h;id  of  the. 

triceps  extensor  cubiti  muscle 

M.  triceps  bracliii 


External  head  of  the  triceps 
extensor  cubiti  muscle 

M.  trictps  brachii 

External  intermuscular  septum 

Sc-ptum  intermusculare  laterals 


Tendon  of  the  pectoralis 
major  muscle 


Deltoid  muscle  (insertion) 
M.  deltoideus 


Biceps  flexor  cubiti  muscle 
M.  biceps  brachii 


*     ^B        Brachialis  anticus  muscle 
(outer  process  of  origin) 


M.  bracliiali: 


Fig.  558. — Arrangement  of  the  Muscles  adjoining  the  Right  Shol'ldek-Joint  and  i:: 
THE  Proximal  Portion  of  the  Upper  Arm,  as  seen  from  the  Outi:r  Side,  after  the 
Removal  of  the  Greater  Part  of  the  Deltoid  Muscle.  Subdeltoid  or  Subacromial 
Bursa  and  Subcutaneous  Bursa  of  the  .\cromion. 


Musculi  articulationis  humeri— Muscles  of  the  shoulder. 


312 


THE   MUSCLES   OF   THE    UPPER  EXTREMITY 


Supraspinatus  muscle 

Spine  of  the  scapula 

Spina  scapulae 


'Internal  axillary  space' 
Teres  major  muscle— 


Acromion 

Acromion 

Infraspinatus  muscle 

Great  tuberosity  of  the  humerus 

Tuberculum  majus  humeri 


Teres  minor  muscle 
"External  axillary  space' 


Middle  or  long  head  of  the  triceps 
extensor  cubiti  muscle 


External  head  of  the  triceps 
extensor  cubiti  muscle 


Deltoid  muscle 
M.  deltoideus 


Brachialis  antious  muscle 
M.  brachialis 


Internal  or  deep  head  of  the  triceps  extensor  cubiti  muscle 
Caput  mediale  m.  tricipitis  brachii 

I  Ifitcrnal  and  Exti:rnal  Axiilary  Spaces. — Between  the  lower  border  of  the  teres  minor  muscle,  the  upper  part  of  the  humerus,  and 
the  axillary  border  of  the  scapula,  covered  in  front  by  the  subscapularis  muscle  and  behind  by  the  teies  minor  muscle,  is  a  triangular  space, 
divided,  as  shown  in  the  ftjirure,  by  the  middle  or  long  head  of  the  triceps  into  an  outer,  quadrilateral,  and  an  inner,  triangular,  compart- 
ment, called  respectively  hy  Toldt  the  internal  and  the  external  axillary  space.  These  names  are  not  in  use  in  England,  but  are  suitable, 
and  may  well  be  adopted.  Through  the  external  axillary  space  the  posterior  circumflex  nerve  and  vessels  pass  backwards;  and  through 
the  mternal  axillary  space  the  dorsal  branch  of  the  subscapular  artery  passes  round  the  margin  of  the  scapula  into  the  infraspinous 
fossa. — Tr. 

Fig.  559. — Muscles  of  the  Right  Shoulder,  seen  from  Behind:  Supr.-vspinatus  .\nd  Infraspinatus 
Muscles;  Teres  Major  and  Teres  Minor  Muscles;  the  Adjoining  Parts  of  the  Triceps  Extensor 
Cubiti  Muscle.     The  *Internal  and  the  *External  Axillary  Space  {see  note  above). 

Acromial  or  scapular  extremity  of  the  clavicle 

Extremitas  acromialis  claviculae 


Supraspinatus  muscle 

Spine  of  the  scapula 

Spina  scapulje 

Bursa  of  the  infraspinatus  muscle" 
Bursa  m.  infraspinati 


Infraspinatus  muscle 


Acromion 

Acromion 

Subdeltoid  or  subacromial  bursa 

Bursa  subacromialis 
Capsular  ligament 
Capsula  articularis 


Teres  major  muscle 


Middle  or  long  head  of  the  triceps  extensor  cubiti  muscle  i 

Caput  loiigum  m.  tricipitis  brachii 


External  head  of  the  triceps 

extensor  cubiti  muscle 

Caput  laterale  m.  tricipitis 

brachii 


=  The  bursa  o/thc  infraspinatus  muscle  lies  between  the  infraspinatus  muscle  and  the  capsular  ligament  of  the  shoulder-joint.— Tk. 

Fig.  560. — In  a  Prepar.vfion  similar  to  that  last  described,  the  Origin  of  the  Infraspinatus  Muscle 
was  detached  from  the  Spine  of  the  Scapula,  to  show  the  Bursa  between  that  Muscle  and  the 
C.\psule  of  the  Shoulder-Joint.     The  Subdeltoid  or  Sub.\cromial  Bursa  has  also  been  opened. 


Musculi  articulationis  humeri — Muscles  of  the  shoulder. 


THE   MUSCLES   OF   THE    UPPER  EXTREMITY 


313 


Bursa  of  the  subscapularis  muscle' 

Liiirsa  m.  subscapularis 

Coracoid  process  (cut  away  at  its  base)  | 

I'rocessus  coracoideus  ' 


Acromion 

Acromion 

Supraspinatus  muscle 


Coracoscapular  or  suprascapular  ligament 

•  Lig.  traiisvcrsum  scapula;  superius 


Grfat  tuberosity 

Tubcrculiim  majus 

Small  tuberosity 

Tuberculum  minus 


•External  axillary  space- 
Latissimus  dorsi  muscle 


Pectoralis  major  muscle 


Long  head  of  the  biceps 
flexor  cubiti  muscle 

Caput  longura 
m.  bicipitis  brachii 


Subscapularis  muscle 


'Internal  axillary  space- 


Teres  major  muscle 


Middle  or  long  head  of  the  triceps 

extensor  cubiti  muscle 
Caput  longuin  m.  tricipitis  brachii 

Internal  or  deep  head  of  the  triceps 
extensor  cubiti  muscle 

Caput  mcdialc  m.  tricipitis  brachii 


Brachialis  anticus  muscle 
M    brachialis 

'  The  bursa  of  the  siibscapiilatis  muscle  is  situate  between  the  upper  border  and  posterior  surface  of  the 
subscapularis  muscle  and  the  coracoid  process  and  neck  of  the  scapula.  — Tit. 
''  See  note  '  on  p.  312. 

Fig.  561. — Muscles  of  the  Right  Shoulder,  seen  from  Before.  Subscapularis  Muscle, 
WITH  ITS  Bursa;  Supraspinatus  Muscle;  Teres  Major  Muscle.  Adjoining  Portions 
OF  the  Muscles  of  the  Upper  Arm  and  of  the  Muscles  passing  from  the  Trunk 
TO  THE  Upper  Li.Mii.  The  "Internal  and  the  "External  A.mllary  Space  (s« 
}totc  '  on  p.  312). 


Musculi  articulaticnis  humeri  — Muscles  of  the  shoulder. 


40 


314 


THE  MUSCLES    OF   THE   UPPER   EXTREMITY 


Subclavius  muscle 


Pectoralis  minor  muscle 
Coracoid  process 

Processus  coracoideus 
Bursa  of  the  subscapularls  muscle' 
IJiirsa  m.  subscapularis 
Bursa  of  the  coracobrachialis  muscle^ 

Bursa  m.  coracobrachialis 

Subscapularis  muscle 

Bursa  of  the  latissimus  dorsi 
muocle' — Bursa  m.  latissimi  dorsi  -^ 
Latissimus  dorsi  muscle  -- 
Teres  major  muscle """ 

Bursa  of  the  teres  major  muscle^  — 

Bursa  m.  teretis  majoris 


Coracobrachialis  muscle 


Biceps  flexor  cubiti  muscle 
M.  biceps  brachii 


Omohyoid  muscle  (posterior 

belly) 
M.  omohyoideus  (venter 
inferior) 
Coracoscapularor  suprascapular 

ligament — Lig.  transversum 
scapulae  superius 


\     .  Subscapular  fossa 

I 

"    -  Teres  minor  muscle 


-Teres  major  muscle 


of  the  triceps  extensor 

cubiti  muscle 

M.  tricipitis  brachii 


Groove  for  the  ulnar  nerve 


'Deep  fascia  of  the  arm 

Internal  intermuscular  septum 
Septum  intermusculare  mediale 


Internal  condyle 

Epicondylus  medialis 
Deep  fascia  of  the  forearm 

Subcutaneous  bursa  of  the  olecranon 

Bursa  subcutanea  olecrani 


*  See  note  ',  p.  313. 

2_  The  Mtfsti  of  the  coracobrachiatU  muscle  is  situate  between  the  anterior  surface  of  the  subscapularis  muscle  and  the  upper  ends  of 
the  biceps  and  the  coracobrachialis  muscles. — Tr. 

3  The  bursa  o/the  latissimus  dorsi  mttsctc  is  situate  between  the  tendon  of  the  latissimus  dorsi  muscle  and  that  of  the  teres  major 
muscle. — Tr. 

4  The  bursa  o/the  teres  major  muscle  is  situate  between  the  tendon  of  the  teres  major  muscle  and  the  humerus.— Tr. 

Fig.  562. — Arrangement  of  the  Muscles  in  the  Proximal  Portion  of  the  Right  Upper  Arm, 
AND  THE  Relation  of  these  Muscles  to  the  Insertions  of  the  Muscles  of  the  Shoulder 
AND  of  the  Muscles  passing  from  the  Trunk  to  the  Upper  Limb.  Seen  from  the  Inner 
Side.  Burs.e  of  this  Region.  Distal  Portion  of  the  Deep  Fascia  of  the  Upper  Arm 
AND  Proximal  Portion  of  the  Deep  Fascia  of  the  Forearm.  Subcutaneous  Bursa  of  the 
Olecranon. 

Musculi  brachii — Muscles  of  the  upper  arm. 


THE  MUSCLES   OF   THE    UPPER   EXTREMITY 


315 


Coracoscapular  or  suprascapular  ligament 
Lig.  transversiim  scapula-  supenus 

Pectoralis  minor  muscle 

Coracoid  process  ; 

Processus  coracoideus  ';      ' 


Pectoralis  major  muscle 


Coracobrachialis  muscle 


Biceps  flexor  cubiti  muscle  (long  head) 
M.  biceps  brachii  (caput  longiim) 


Biceps  flexor  cubiti  muscle  (internal 
or  short  head) 
M.  biceps  brachii  (caput  breve) 


Brachialia  anticus  muscle . 
M.  brachialis 


Subscapularis  muscle 


Teres  major  muscle 


Triceps  extensor  cubiti  muscle  (middle 

or  long  head) 

M.  triceps  brachii  (caput  longum) 


Triceps  extensor  cubiti  muscle  (internal 

or  deep  head) 

M.  triceps  brachii  (caput  mediale) 


Internal  intermuscular  septum 

Septum  intermusculare  mediale 

Inner  bicipital  furrow 
Sulcus  bicipilalis  medialis 

Brachialis  anticus  muscle 

M.  brachialis 


Supinator  radii  longus  muscle.. 
M.  brachioradialis 


Extensor  carpi  radialis  longior  muscle  . 
M    e.xtcnsur  carpi  radialis  longus 


H 


J 


Semilunar  or  bicipital  fascia 
Lacertus  fibrosus 


Pronator  radii  teres  muscle 


}M.  pronator  teres 
-  Flexor  carpi  radialis  muscle 


Fic.  563.— Biceps  Flexor  Ciimti  Muscle,  of  the  Right  Side,  and  its  Relations  to  the 
OTHER  Muscles- ON  the  Flexor  Side  of  the  Upper  Arm,  to  the  Muscles  of  the 
Shoulder,  to  the  Muscles  passing  from  the  Trunk  to  the  Upper  Limb,  and  to 
the  Muscles  of  the  Forearm. 


Musculi  brachii— Muscles  of  the  upper  arm. 


40- 


316 


THE  MUSCLES   CF   THE    UPPER  EXTREMITY 


Coracoid  process 

Processus  coracoideus 
Pectoralis  minor  muscle 


Coracoscapular  or  suprascapular  ligament 

Lig.  transversum  scapula;  superius 


Biceps  flexor  cubiti  muscle 
(internal  or  short  head) 
Til.  biceps  brachii  (caput  breve) 
Biceps  flexor  cubiti  muscle  (long 

head) 
M.  biceps  brachii  (caput  longum) 


Pectoralis  major  muscle 


Deltoid  muscle 
M.  deltoideus 


Teres  major  muscle 
Latissimus  dorsi  muscle 


Brachialis  anticus  muscle 

M.  brachialis 


Subscapularis  muscle 


Internal  intermuscular  septum 

Septum  intermusculare  mediale 


*Bicipitoradial  bursa^ 

Bursa  bicipitoradialis 


I    W  '  I      -Tendon  of  insertion  of  the  biceps 
^"  flexor  cubiti  muscle 

1  This  bursa  is  situate  between  the  tendon  of  insertion  of  the  biceps  muscle  and  the  anterior  smooth 
portion  of  the  tuberosity  of  the  radius. — Tr. 

Fig.  564. — The  Muscles  of  the  Anteiuor  (Flexor)  Side  of  the  Right  Upper  Arm,  after 
Removal  of  the  Biceps  Flexor  Cubiti  Muscle.  Coracobrachialis  Muscle;  Brachialis 
Anticus  Muscle. 

The  tendon  of  insertion  of  the  biceps  flexor  cubiti  muscle  has  been  turned  downwards,  in  order  to 
display  the  •■bicipitoradial  bursa  {see  note  above). 


Musculi  brachii — Muscles  of  the  upper  arm. 


THE  MUSCLES   OF   THE   UPPER  EXTREMITY 


317 


Subclavius  muscle  (insertion) 
Coracoclavicular  ligament'  i 

I-i;;.  coracocla\  icularc 
Coracoid  process 
I 'locessus  coracoideus 


Pectoralis  minor  muscle , 

Deltoid  muscle  - 
Common  tendon  of  the  coracobrachialis 
muscle  and  the  internal  or  short  head 
of  the  biceps  flexor  cubiti  muscle 
Biceps  flexor  cubiti  muscle  (long  bead    tendon 
of  originj— M.  biceps  brachii  (caput  longum) 

Glenoid  fossa 
Cavitas  glenoidalis 


Great  tuberosity 
Tuberculum  majus 

Small  tuberosity 
Tuberculum  minus 

Subscapularis  muscle 


Latissimus  dorsi  muscle 
Teres  major  muscle 
Pectoralis  major  muscle 


Deltoid  muscle 
M.  deltoideus 


Supinator  radii  longus 

muscle   origin  / 

M.  brachioradialis 

Extensor  carpi  radialis 

longior  muscle 

M.  extensor  carpi 

radialis  longus 

Extensor  carpi  radialis  brevier 

muscle 
M.  extensor  carpi  radialis  brovis 
Annular  or  orbicular 
ligament  of  the  radius 
I-ig    annulare  radii    . 
Supinator  radii  brevis  muscle 
origin'     M    supinator 

Supinator  radii  brevis  muscle  . 
(deep  insertions) — M.  supinator 


Bicep|8  flexor  cubiti  muscle  (insertion) 
M    biceps  bracliii 

Supinator  radii  brevis  muscle  super- 
ficial insertion      M.  supinator 


Sternocleidomastoid  muscle  (clavicular  head) 
M.  sternocleidomastoideus  (caput  claviculare) 

. Pectoralis  maj  or  muscle  (clavicular  portion) 

M.  pectoralis  major  (pars  clavicularis) 

Omohyoid  muscle  (insertion)- 
M.  omoliyoideus 


Serratus  magnus  muscle  (insertion) 

M.  serratus  anterior 


Subscapularis  muscle  (origin  from 
the  subscapular  fossa) 


Serratus  magnus  muscle  (insertion) 
M.  serratus  anterior 


Triceps  extensor  cubiti  muscle 
middle  or  long  head) 
M.  triceps  brachii  (caput  longum) 
Coracobrachialis  muscle  (insertion) 


Brachialia  auticus  muscle  (origin) 
M.  brachialis 


Internal  intermuscular  septum 

-Septum  intermusculare  medialc 

Capsule  of  the  elbow  joint 

Capsula  articularis 

Pronator  radii  teres  muscle  (humeral  head) 
,M.  pronator  teres  (caput  bumerale) 

Internal  condyle 

l-;picondylus  medialis 
Common  tendon  of  the  pronator  radii  teres,  flexor 
•-;,  carpi  radialis,  palmaris  longus,  flexor  carpi  ulnaris, 
-''  and  flexor  sublimis  digitorum  ■  muscles 


Pronator  radii  teres  (ulnar  head) 
M.  pronator  teres  (caput  ulnare) 

Flexor  sublimis  digitorum'  (humeral  head) 
~  M.  flexor  digitiruni  sublimis  (caput  humcrale) 

Flexor  carpi  ulnaris  muscle 
Brachialis  anticus  muscle  (insertion) 
M    lirachialis 
Oblique  ligament— Chorda  obliqua 


'  This  tcrni,  cflraoKtaTicuiar  iif^anuttt,  ix  seldom  u«m1  in  Knt^Iand,  where  Ihclwo  parts  of  wlticti  the  ligAmcnt  consists  arc  more  often 
sc|»rately  dcscriltcd,  as  the  amciii  li/^anient  and  the  frafiezoiii  it'i^ament,  rcspcciis-cly.    Sec  Section  1 1,  of  this  wotIc,  p.  io3,  Fig.  415.— Tk. 
^  The  suiiiulAr  attachment  of  ihc  omohyoid  is  by  English  anatomists  regarded  as  the  on'/j-in  of  tltat  muscle. — Tk. 
1  Ot  Jtt.xor  ffcr/oratui  mu.sclc. 

Fig.  565.— Attachment  df  Muscles  to  the  Anterior  Surfaces  of  the  Scapula,  the  Humerus, 

AM)    THE    ICl.I'.OW. 


Musculi  brachii — Muscles  of  the  upper  arm. 


318 


THE  MUSCLES   OF   THE   UPPER  EXTREMITY 


Teres  major  muscle 


Middle  or  long  head 

Caput  longum 

Internal  or  deep  head 

Caput  mediale 


Internal  or  deep  head 

Caput  mediale 


Internal  condyle 

Epicondylus  medialis 

Aperture  for  the  ulnar  nerve, 

between  the  two  heads  of  the 

flexor  carpi  ulnaris  muscle 


Flexor  carpi  ulnaris  muscle 


Acromion 

Infraspinatus  muscle 

J     Great  tuberosity  of  the  humerus 
-  Tuberculum  majus  humeri 
—  Teres  minor  muscle 


External  head 
Caput  laterale 


-Triceps  extensor  cubiti  muscle 


Internal  or  deep  head 

Caput  mediale 


Olecranon 

■  Olecranon 


Anconeus  muscle 

M.  anconaeus 

Posterior  border  of  the  ulna 

Margo  dorsalis  ulna: 

Extensor  carpi  ulnaris  muscle 
M.  exiensor  carpi  ulnaris 


Fig.  566. — Triceps  Extensor  Cubiti  Muscle,  of  the  Right  Side,  seen  from  Behind; 
THE  Relations  of  its  Proximal  Extremity  to  the  Muscles  of  the  Shoulder,  and 
OF  its  Distal  Extremity  to  the  Muscles  of  the  Forearm.    Anconeus  Muscle. 


Musculi  brachii — Muscles  of  the  upper  arm. 


THE   MUSCLES   OF   THE    UPPER   EXTREMITY 


319 


Trapezius  muscle  (clavicular  origin  ' 

M.  traiiL'zius 

Omohyoid  muscle 

M.  onidhvoideus   ■ 


-The  clavicle 
Clavicula 


Supraspinatus  muscle   origin, 
from  the  supraspinous  fossa) 

Levator  anguli  scapula  muscle 
M.  levator  scapuhL- 

Spine  of  the  scapula 
Spina  scapula; 

Trapezius  muscle  (scapular  origin' 
M.  trapezius 

Rhomboideus  minor  muscle 

Deltoid  muscle  (scapular  origin) 
M.  deltoideus 


Rhomboideus  major  muscle  - 

Infraspinatus  muscle  (origin  - 
from  the  infraspinous  fossa) 

Teres  minor  muscle 


Teres  major  muscle- 


Serratus  magnus  muscle 
M.  serratus  anterior 


,,Deltoid  muscle  (clavicular  origin) 
M.  (Ifltoideus 

^Acromion 

'Acromion 

Capsule  of  the  shoulder-joint 

,''Capsula  articularis 

'-Supraspinatus  muscle 


^Infraspinatus  muscle 


-Teres  minor  muscle 


Triceps  extensor  cubiti  muscle 

(external  head) 

M.  triceps  brachii  (caput  laterale) 


Deltoid  muscle 

.M.  deltoideus 


Bracbialis  anticus  muscle 

M    brachialis 

External  intermuscular  septum 
Septum  intermusculare  laterale 


Triceps  extensor  cubiti  muscle  (origin 
of  the  internal  or  deep  head) 

M.  triceps  brachii  (caput  medialc) 

Internal  intermuscular  septum 
Septum  intermusculare  mediale 


Capsule  of  the  elbow-joint., 

Capsula  articularis 


Triceps  extensor  cubiti  muscle  (insertion) 

M.  triceps  brachii 

Internal  condyle  ••'' 

lipicondyius  niedialis 

Olecranon 

Olecranon 

Flexor  carpi  ulnaris  muscle 


Anconeus  muscle  (origin-^) 
M.  anconeus 


Posterior  border  of  the  ulna ' 
Margo  dorsalis  ulnx 


Triceps  extensor  cubiti  muscle 

(external  head) 

M.  triceps  brachii  (caput  laterale) 

Supinator  radii  longus  muscle 

M.  brachioradialis 


Extensor  carpi  radialis  longior  muscle 
M.  extensor  carpi  radialis  longus 


External  condyle 

-  Kpicondylus  lateralis 

Anconeus  muscle  t  insertion'-') 
M    acona  us 
-.Annular  or  orbicular  ligament  of  the  radiuc 
I.i^.  annulare  radii 
Neck  of  the  radius 
t'olluni  railii 
^Supinator  radii  brevis  muscle  (origin) 
M    sujiinator 

Supinator  radii  brevis  muscle  (insertion) 
M.  supinator 


Aperture  for  the  posterior  interosseous 

nerve,  between  the  two  layers  of  the 

supinator  radii  brevis  muscle 


'  InsertiflH  of  the  lrap<7iu*  muscle,  .iccorilins  to  Kncti^h  analomUtfl. 

»  Enfili^h  analomists  regard  (he  humeral  atta>:1unct)l  .if  ihc  anconeus  muscle  as  the  oriffin,  and  the  ulnar  allachmcnt  as  the  imfttum, 
of  that  muscle. — 'Vk. 

Fig.  567. — Attachment  of  Muscles  to  the  Posterior  Surfaces  of  the  Scapula,  the  Humerus, 

AND  the  Eluow. 


Musculi  brachii  —  Muscles  of  the  upper  arm. 


320 


THE   MUSCLES   OF   THE    UPPER   EXTREMITY 


Brachialis  anticus  mnscle 

M.  brachialis 


Subcutaneous  bursa  of  the  internal  condyle 

Bursa  subcutanea  epicondyli  medialis 

Humeral  head 

Caput  humerale\ 

Ulnar 
head    - 

Caput    \ 
.  ulnaie 


Flexor  carpi 
ulnaris  muscle 


Deep  fascia  of  the  forearm 
Fascia  antibrachii 


Triceps  extensor  cubiti  muscle 
,''';  M.  triceps  brachii 


Internal  or  deep  head 

Caput  mediale 


Middle  or  long  head 

Caput  longum 


Subtendinous  bursa  of  the 
olecranon' 

Bursa  subtendinea  olecrani 


Epitrochleo-anconeus 
muscle  (var.  )- 


Intratendinous  bursa  of  the 

olecranon' 
Bursa  intratendmea  olecrani 


Subcutaneous  bursa  of  the 

olecrancn 
Bursa  subcutanea  olecrani 

'  Concerning  these  bursse  Quain  writes  ("  Elements  of  Anatomy."  loth  ed.,  vol.  ii.,  Part  II.,  p.  221):  "  In 
many  cases  there  is  a  small  bursa  above  the  olecranon,  either  between  the  tendon  of  the  triceps  and  the 
posterior  ligament,  or  more  frequently  in  the  deep  part  of  the  tendon  itself.  A  bursa  behind  the  internal 
condyle,  beneath  the  inner  edge  of  the  triceps  and  the  ulnar  nerve,  is  of  rare  occurrence." — Tr. 

-  The  epitroclileo-ancoiieus  is  a  small  muscle  often  found,  which  arises  from  the  posterior  surface  of  the  interna! 
condyle  of  the  humerus,  and  is  inserted  into  the  olecranon.  It  is  superficial  to  the  ulnar  nerve.  When 
absent,  it  is  represented  by  a  band  of  transverse  fibres  in  the  deep  fascia  of  the  arm. — Tr. 

Fig.  568. — The   Inner   Side   of  the   Right   Elbow  with  the   Distal   Extremity  of   the 
Triceps    Extensor   Cubiti    Muscle,   the   Anomalous    Epitrochleo-anconeus    Muscle, 

AND    THE    BURS^    OF    THIS    ReGION. 

Ill  order  to  display  the  intratendinous  and  the  subtendinous  burSEC  of  the  olecranon,  tno  longitudinal 
incisions  have  been  made  in  the  distal  extremity  of  the  triceps  e.xtensor  cubiti  muscle,  and  the 
posterior  margins  of  the  incisions  have  been  retracted  witli  hooks.  In  the  region  of  the  forearm 
the  deep  fascia  has  been  left  intact. 


Musculi  brachii — Muscles  of  the  upper  arm. 


THE   MUSCLES   OF   THE    UPPER  EXTREMITY 


321 


Deltoid  muscle 
M    delloiclcus 


Triceps  extensor  cubiti  muscle 
textemal  head! 
M.  triceps  brachii  (capul  laterale) 


Supinator  longus  muscle 
M,  bradiioradialis 


Extensor  carpi  radialis  longior  muscle 
M.  extensor  carpi  radialis  loiijiis 

Capitellum  of  the  humerus 
C'apitulum  hum.-ri 
Annular  or  orbicular  ligament  of  the  radius  - 
1,11;   anmilare  radii 

Tendon  of  the  biceps  flexor  cubiti  muscle 
Bicipitoradial  bursa' 
liiirsa  bicipitoradialis  - 
'Interosseous  bursa  of  elbow-  (i) 
Supinator  radii  brevis  muscle— M.  supinator 

Flexor  longus  poUicis  muscle 

M    (luxnr  jiollicis  lonfjus 

Extensor  carpi  radialis  brevier  muscle  • 
M    extensor  carj'i  radialis  brovis 

Pronator  radii  teres  muscle 
M.  pronator  teres 


(l)  Uursa  cubiMlis  inleros-sca 


Triceps  extensor  cubiti  muscle 

(internal  or  deep  head) 

M.  triceps  brachii  (caput  mediale) 


Brachialis  anticus  muscle 
M.  brachialis 


Common  tendon  of  the  pronator 

radii  teres,  palmaris  longus,  and 

flexcr  carpi  radialis  muscles 


■Flexor  sublimis  digitorum-  muscle 

(humeral  head) 

M.  flexor  digitorum  sublimis 

(caput  humerale) 

Flexor  profundus  digitorum'  muscle 

M.  llexor  diKiloriim  profundus 


Flexor  sublimis  digitorum^  muscle 

(radial  head) 

Rl.  flexor  digitorum  sublimis 

(caput  radiale) 


'  See  note  loll.  316. 

_^  lntcrt*ssf0tis  liiirsa  0/  the  F.lltoiu. — This  luirsa  is  situate  in  \!ait  bicipital  hoU<Ki}  o{  \\\ii  uln.t,  which  lies  Ik-Iow  the  small  sigmoid 
cavity,  hounded  hchinil  Iiy  the  supinator  ridi»e  and  in  front  by  the  upper  extremity  of  the  interosseous  border.  In  pronation  of  the  h.ands, 
the  bicipital  hollow  lodges  the 'tuberosity  of  the  ladius  and  the  distal  extremity  of  the  biceps  tendon  ;  and  the  interosseous  btirsa  forms  a 
synovial  c.ivityljclwecn  the  two  lioi  cs.  iiebind,  the  sac  is  in  contact  with  the  interosseous  inembrane;nul  the  oblitiue  ligament ;  projecting 
forward,  it  separates  the,tendon  of  the  brac'oalis  anticus  on  the  inner  side  from  the  tendon  of  the  biceps  and  the  upper  piitt  of  the  ii.scrtion 
of  the  supinator  r.idii  brevis  on  the  outer  side.  Thus  the  tendon  of  the  biceps  at  its  insertion  lies  between  the  bicipiti)radial  burva  and  the 
interosseous  bursa  of  the  elbow.    The  condition  known  as  '*  lawn- tennis  elbow  'depends  on  intlanimation  of  one  o'  both  of  these  bvirs;e. — Th. 

3  Qtjlexor  /ifr/itratus  muscle. 

*  Qt  JJexor fcr/oi-ans  muscle. 

Fig.  569. — Till-;  Origin  of  THii  Palmak  and  Radial  Muscles  oi-  tiii;  Right  Forearm,  and 
THEIR  Relations  to  the  Brachialis  Anticus  Muscle  in  the  Neighbourhood  oe  the 
Anteclhital  Fossa.  Anterior  Aspect,  the  Forearm  being  supinated.  The  Bicipito- 
radial Bursa  {%ce  note  '  above)  and  the  Interosseous  Bursa  oi-^  the  Ei.how  {sec  note  -  above). 

The  brachialis  anticus  muscle  h.is  been  drawn  sli};litly  inwards.  The  two  superficial  muscles  of  the 
radial  Kr^up-  'he  supinator  r.idii  lonj;us  and  the  extensor  carpi  radi.ilis  lonjjior,  have  been  cut 
away,  except  for  their  proximal  extremities,  which  have  been  turned  outw.irds,  in  order  to  lay  bare 
the  ilecp  layer  of  muscles  of  the  radial  group  :  these  arc  the  extensor  carpi  radialis  brevior  and 
the  supinator  radii  brevis.  The  superficial  layer  of  the  palmar  group  of  muscles  has  also  been 
removed. 


Musculi  antibrachii     Muscles  of  the  forearm. 


41 


322 


THE   MUSCLES   OF   THE    UPPER   EXTREMITY 


Biceps  flexor  cubiti  muscle 

M.  biceps  bracliii 


Supinator  radii  brevis  muscle 

M,  supinator 


Supinator  radii  longus  muscle 

M.  brachioradialis 


Extensor  carpi  radialis  longior  muscle 

M.  extensor  carpi  radialis  longus 


Flexor  sublimis  digitorum  muscle' 

(radial  head) 

M.  flexor  digitorum  sublimis 

{caput  radiale) 


Brachialis  anticus  muscle 

M.  brachialis 

Semilunar  or  bicipital  fascia 
yr    )-    Lacertus  fibrosus 

/gil._    Antecubital  fossa 
Fossa  cubitalis 


'^11       Pronator  radii  teres  muscles 

M.  pronator  teres 

Flexor  carpi  radialis  muscle 
Palmaris  longus  muscle 


Flexor  sublimis  digitorum  muscle' 

M.  flexor  digitorum  sublimis 


Flexor  carpi  ulnaris  muscle 


Flexor  longus  poUicis  muscle 

M.  flexor  pollicis  longus 


•Ulnar  furrow  of  the  forearm 
~  Sulcus  antibrachii  ulnaris 


*Radial  furrow  of  the  forearm 

Sulcus  antibracliii  radialis 

Anterior  annular  ligament  of  the  wrist 
Lig.  carpi  volare 


Thenar  eminence 

Thenar 


Palmaris  brevis  muscle 

Hypothenar  eminence 
Hypothenar 


.1'         U«Jj 


1= 


Palmar  fascia 
Aponeurosis  palmaris 


*  Or /^exor  ^ct;/lirafifS  mnsc\e, 

2  Knglish  anatomists  group  the  pronator  and  flexor  muscles  of  the  forearm  in  ^vo  layers  only:  a  sufierficia^^  comprehending  the 
pronator  radii_  teres,  flexor  carpi  radialis,  palmaris  longus,  and  flexor  sublimis  digitorum  muscles ;  and  a  dfcp^  comprehending  the  flexor 
profinidus  digitorum,  flexor  longus  pollicis,  and  pronator  quadratus  muscle.  .  The  author,  however,  groups  these  nuisclcs  in  four  layers, 
as  enumerated  in  the  description  at  the  foot  of  Figs.  570,  571,  and  572. — Tr. 

Fig.  570. — The  Superficial  Layer  (see  note  "-  above)  of  the  Palmar  Group  of  Muscles  of 
THE  Right  Forearm:  Pronator  Radii  Teres  Muscle,  Flexor  Carpi  Radialis  Muscle, 
Palmaris  Longus  Muscle,  Flexor  Carpi  Ulnaris  Muscle.  The  Superficial  Layer 
of  the  Radial  Group  of  Muscles  :  Supin.^tor  Radii  Longus  Muscle,  and  a  Portion 
OF  THE  Extensor  Carpi  Radia-lis  Longior  Musci,e.  The  Antecubital  Fossa,  and  the 
Ulnar  and  Radial  Furrcjws  of  the  Forearm.  Ligamentum  Carpi  Volare,  the  Anterior 
Annular  Ligament  of  the  Wrist,  and  the  Palmar  Fascia  with  the  Palmaris  Bkhvis 
Muscle. 


Musculi  antibrachii —  Muscles  of  the  forearm. 


THE  MUSCLES   OF   THE    UPPER  EXTREMITY 


323 


Biceps  flexor  cubiti  muscle 
M.  biceps  brachii 


_\        Internal  condyle 

i]ij         l-;]iicoinlylus  iiiL-dialis 

Brachialis  anticus  muscle 
M.  brachialis 


Supinator  radii  brevis  muscle 
M.  supinator 


Pronator  radii  teres  muscle  ' 
M.  pronator  teres 


Flexor  sublimis  digitorum  muscle' 

(radial  head) 

M.  flexor  digitorum  sublimis 

(caput  radiale) 


Flexor  sublimis  digitorum  muscle' 

(humeral  head) 

M   llexor  disitoruni  sublimis 

(caput  humerale) 


Pronator  quadratus  muscle 

Supinator  radii  longus  muscle 
M.  brachioradialis 

Flexor  carpi  radialis  muscle 
M    llexor  carpi  radialis 
Ridge  or  tuberosity  of  the  trapezitim 
Tiiberculum  ossis  multanRnli  majoris- 
BuTsa  of  the  flexor  carpi  radialis  muscle- 
Bursa  m.  (lexoris  carpi  ra<ijalis 

Opponens  poUicis  muscle 
M    opjionens  pollicis 
First  dorsal  interosseous  or  , .-. 

abductor  indicis.  muscle  ,;/V 

M.  interosseus  dorsalis  1. 


-Flexor  carpi  ulnaris  muscle 


f, 


Abductor  minimi  digfiti  muscle 

M.  abductor  digiti  quinti 


*  Or _fftxor pfrforatiis  miiKle. 

'  This  buna  lies  bcncnth  the  tendon  of  the  flexor  carpi  radialis  muscle  as  it  crosses  the  icaphoid  bone  and  the  trape/ium. — Tr. 

Fir,.  571.— The  Second  Layer  {siv  no/,-'  lo p.  ii2)  tw  the  Palmar  Group  of  Muscles  of  the  Right  Forearm  : 
Flexor  Suhlimls  Dicitokum  or  Flexor  I'krioratus  Muscle.  The  Ulstal  Attachments  (Insertions) 
OF  the  Tenhons  of  the  Flexor  Carpi  Ulnakis,  Flexor  Carpi  Kaihalis,  and  Supinator  Radii  Longus 
Muscles.  The  Superficial  Muscles  of  the  Hvpotiienar  Eminence,  and  the  Interosseous  Muscles 
of  the  H^nd  that  are  visible  from  the  i'Ai.MAR  Side.  The  Mursa  of  the  Flexor  Carpi  Radialis 
Muscle  ysec  noic  '  tthovc). 

After  the  lemov.il  of  the  irmscles  of  the  superficial  l.iyer  and  the  anterior  annul.ir  ligament  of  llic  wrist,  the  flexor 
sublimis  iligitonim  muscle  w.TS  laid  b.ire.  In  order  to  show  clcirly  ihc  disposilion  of  the  tendons  of  the  flexor 
sublimis  digitorum  muscle,  the  flexor  proftindtf^  digitonim  iiiufcle  was  removed. 


Musculi  antibrachii     Muscles  of  the  forearm. 


41—2 


324 


THE  MUSCLES   OF  THE    UPPER   EXTREMITY 


Brachialis  anticus  muscle 

M.  brachialis 

Tendon  of  the  biceps 
flexor  cubiti  muscle 


Supinator  radii  brevis  muscle 
M.  supinator 


Flexor  sublimis  digitorum  muscle^ 

(radial  head) 

M.  flexor  digitorum  sublimis 

(caput  radiale) 

Flexor  longus  pollicis  muscle    - 

M.  flexor  pollicis  longus 


Internal  intermuscular  septum 
Septum  intermusculare  mediate 

Internal  condyle 
ICpicondylus  medialis 


Flexor  profundus  digitorum  muscle' 

M.  flexor  digitorum  profundus 


Interosseous  membrane  or  ligament 

of  the  forearm 

Membrana  interossea  antibrachii 


Pisiform  bone 
Os  pisiforme 

Unciform  process  of  the  unciform  bone 

Hamulus  ossis  hamati 

Flexor  brevis  minimi  digiti  muscle 
M.  flexor  digiti  quinti  brevis 
t^4\l  Abductor  minimi  digiti  muscle 

_„  M   abductor  digiti  quinti 

m'^W     -----  '  Lumbricales  muscles 
..»«!■-  -;;JMni.  lumbricales 

i.fiA \Vaginal  ligaments'* 

V;a'^-'     ;-■;-'  / Llgg-  vagmalia 


Pronator  quadratus  muscle 

M.  pronator  quadratus 


Remains  of  the  anterior  annular 
ligament  of  the  wrist 


Abductor  pollicis  muscle 
M.  abductor  pollicis  brevis— 

Flexor  brevis  pollicis  muscle-  — 

M.  flexor  pollicis  brevis 

Adductor  pollicis  muscle-  -  '' 


First  dorsal  interosseous  or 
abductor  indicis  muscle 
M.  interosseus  dorsalis  I. 


*  Or  Jlexor per/oyatus  muscle. 

=  The  author  adheres  to  the  cld  nomenclature  of  the  short  muscles  of  the  thumb,  but  that  introduced  by  Cunningham  is  now  generally 
adopted  by  English  anatomists.  Following  this  writer,  the  former  adductor  pollicis  is  called  the  adductor  pollicis  trans7'Crsrts,  and  what 
used  to  be  called  the  deep  head  of  the  jflcxor  brevis  pollicis  muscle  is  divided  into  two  parts.  The  larger  part,  known  as  the  Oiiductor 
oblitfiitis pollicis,  the  largest  of  the  thumb  muscles,  consists  of  several  slips  arising  from  the  upper  ends  of  the  second  and  third  metacarpal 
bones,  the  os  magnum,  the  anterior  carpal  Hsaments,  and  the  sheath  of  the  tiexor  carpi  radialis  muscle  ;  the  muscle  is  inserted,  in  common 
with  the  adductor  transversiis  and  the  deep  head  of  the  flexor  brevis,  into  the  inner  side  of  the  base  of  the  lirst  phalanx  of  the  thumb. 
What  is  now  termed  th-j  decf>  head  of  i^ttjlcxor  brevis  pollicis  is  a  very  small  slip,  deeply  placed  between  the  adductor  obliqiius  pollicis 
and  the  outer  head  of  the  abductor  indicis.  It  arises  from  the  ulnar  side  of  the  upper  part  of  the  first  metacarpal  bone,  and  is  inserted  as 
already  described. — Tr.     See  also  Figs.  573,  585,  and  586. 

3  O1  Jlcxor per/orans  muscle. 

4  See  note  3  to  p.  334. 

Fig.  572.— The  Third  L.wer  of  thic  P.almar  Group  of  Muscles  of  the  Right  Forearm,  after  the  First 
AND  Second  Layers  and  the  Anterior  Annular  Ligament  of  the  Wrist  have  teen  removed:  Flexor 
Profundus  Digitorum  or  Flexor  Perforans  Muscle,  and  Flexor  Longus  Pollicis  Muscle.  In  the 
Fourth  Layer  we  see  a  Portion  of  the  Pronator  Quadr.\tus  Muscle.  Lumbricales  Muscles,  and 
the  Superficial  Muscles  of  the  Thenar  and  Hvpothenar  Eminences  :  Abductor  Brevis  Pollicis, 
Adductor  Pollicis  {see  note  ■  above).  Flexor  Brevis  Pollicis,  Flexor  Brevis  Minimi  Digiti  and 
Abductor  Minimi  Digiti  Muscles. 


Musculi  antibrachii — Muscles  of  the  forearm. 


THE   MUSCLES   OF   THE    UPPER   EXTREMITY 


325 


Supinator  radii  longus  muscle 
M.  brachioradialis 


Extensor  carpi  radialis  longior  muscle-- 

M.  extensor  carpi  radialis  longus 

Extensor  carpi  radialis  brevior  muscle,, 

M.  L-Mcnsor  c.irpi  radialis  lircvis 

Annular  or  orbicular  ligament  of  the  radius  .. 

Lig.  annulare  radii 

Supinator  radii  brevis  muscle  (origin)  M.  supinator"" 
Supinator  radii  brevis  muscle  (deep  insertion,- 
M.  supinator 

Tendon  of  insertion  of  the 

biceps  flexor  cubiti  muscle 

Supplementary  origin  of  the,- 

flexor  longus  pollicis  muscle 

Supinator  radii  brevis  muscle  (superficial  insertion) ' 

M.  supinator 


Pronator  radii  teres  muscle 

M.  pronator  teres 

Flexor  sublimis  digitorum  muscle'  (radial  head)  - 
M.  flexor  digitorum  sublimis  (caput  railiale) 

Fleshy  origin  of  the  flexor 
longus  pollicis  muscle 

Accessory  slip  from  the  radius  to  the 
flexor  profundus  digitorum  muscle- 


Pronator  quadratus  muscle 


Styloid  process  of  the  radius-. 

Tuberosity  of  the  scaphoid  bone 

Tuberculum  ossis  navicularis     ^  , 


Deep  head  of  the  flexor  brevis 
pollicis  muscle' 

Opponens  pollicis  muscle  (insertion  --- 


Tendon  of  insertion  of  tht^' 
flexor  carpi  radialis  muscle 
Carpal  head  of  the  adductor  pollicis  muscle' 
Metacarpal  head  of  the  adductor  pollicis  muscle 


Brachialis  anticus  muscle 

M    brachialis 

Internal  intermuscular  septum 
Septum  intermusculare  mediale 

Fasciculi  of  the  brachialis  anticus 
muscle  attached  to  the  anterior  , 

ligament  of  the  elbow-joint 

Internal  condyle 
Hpicondylus  medialis 

.^  Common  tendon  of  the  pronator  radii  teres,  flexor 
carpi  radialis,  palmaris  longus,  flexor  carpi 
ulnaris,  and  flexor  sublimis  digitorum'  muscles 

Flexor  sublimis  digitorum  muscle'  (humeral  head) 

M.  Ilexor  (lii;itorum  sublimis  (caput  humerale) 

-Pronator  radii  teres  muscle  (ulnar  head) 

M.  pronator  teres  (caput  ulnare 

Tendon  of  insertion  of  the  brachialis 
anticus  muscle 

Aponeurotic  origin  of  the  flexor  carpi 
ulnaris  muscle  from  the  ulna 


-  Fleshy  origin  of  the  flexor  sublimis 
digitorum  muscle- 


Interosseous  membrane  or  ligament 

of  the  forearm 

Membrana  interossca  antibrachii 


Pronator  quadratus  muscle 

Inferior  radio-ulnar  articulation 

Articulatio  radio-ulnaris  distalis 

Tendinous  insertion  of  the  flexor 

carpi  ulnaris  muscle 
Pisiform  bone 
•  'Os  pisifcrme 
,Pisi-uncinate  ligament — Lig.  pisohamatum 

— Pisimetacarpal  ligament     I.ip.  pisometacarpeum 
,_  Tendinous  insertion  of  the  extensor 
carpi  ulnaris  muscle 
Unciform  process  of  the  unciform  bone 

Unlimlii-  ..-,i,  luiti..ni 

Flexor  brevis  minimi  digiti  and  opponens  minimi  digiti 

muscles  (Originl  — Mm,  lU-xor  dijjili  quirul  ljrt\is  ct 
><ptHiiicii-<  di>:i(i  (|liinti 

^  Opponens  minimi  digiti  muscle  (insertion) 

M.  upiwiicns  di>;iti  (iliiiili 


'  Or  Jlt.ror  fifr/oratiit  tnMscXc. 

'  Ox  Jhxar /ler/orani  mu.sclc. 

^  Stc  note  »  to  p.  324. 

*  Whtit  the  author  calls  the  carfiitl  httui  of  the  aitttiiclor  /tollicis  mn-scle  ix  part  of  ihc  atiiluctor  />olit\-is  ohliijuus  ncconlin^  to 
Cunningh.-im,  whiUt  what  he  calls  the  iiielacar/iat  licati  0/  the  ailductor  pottidt  is  the  tuiductor  />otlkis  traMSTrrsits  ut  KuKlish  anatomists, 
i^cc  rote  ^  to  p.  374. 

l'*^'-  573.— Attachment  of  Muscles  to  thi;  Palmar  Suiu-ACii  of  tiif.  Foreakm  anu  the  Hand. 


Musculi  antibrachii— Muscles  of  the  forearm. 


326 


THE  MUSCLES   OF   THE   UPPER  EXTREMITY 


Triceps  extensor  cubiti  muscle 
(external  head) 

M.  triceps  brachii  (caput  lateralo) 

External  intermuscular  septum 

Septum  intermusculare  laterale 


Supinator  radii  longus  muscle 

M.  brachioradialis 


External  condyle 

Epicondylus  lateralis 
Extensor  carpi  radialis  longior  muscle 

M.  extensor  carpi  radialis  longus 


Anconeus  muscle  - 

M.  ancona!us 


Extensor  communis  digitorum  muscle 

M.  extensor  digitorum  communis 


Extensor  carpi  ulnaris  muscle 


Extensor  minimi  digiti  muscle 
M.  extensor  digiti  quinti  proprius 

Extensor  indicia  muscle 

M.  extensor  indicis  proprius 


Head  of  the  ulna 
Capitulum  uUkl' 

Posterior  annular  ligament  of  the  wrist 


Brachialis  anticus  muscle 

M.  lirachi.ilis 


Outer  bicipital  furrow 

Sulcus  bicipitalis  lateralis 

Biceps  flexor  cubiti  muscle 
M.  biceps  brachii 


Extensor  carpi  radialis  brevier  muscle 

M.  extensor  carpi  radialis  brevis 


Extensor  ossis  metacarpi  poUicis'  or 

abductor  longus  poUicis  muscle 

M,  abductor  pollicis  longus 

Extensor  primi  intemodii  pollicis'  or 

extensor  brevis  pollicis  muscle 

W.  extensor  poUicis  bre\'is 

Extensor  secundi  intemodii  pollicis'  or 

extensor  longus  pollicis  muscle 

M.  extensor  pollicis  longus 


I  have  given  the  preference  to  the  old  names,  as  more  distinctive  and  therefore  more  suitable,  of  the  three  extensor  muscles  of  the 
thumb,  e.rtcnsorossis  tnvtacarfii  pollicis,  extensor  prhyii  intemodii  pollicis^  and  extensor  secundi  interyiodii  pollicis.  Quani  (•'  Anatomy," 
loth  ed.)  has,  however,  adopted  the  Continental  nomenclature  in  the  case  of  the  two  latter  muscles,  which  he  terms  respectively  extensor 
brevis  pollicis  and  extensor  longus  pollicis,  whilst  yet  other  names  have  been  adopted  by  Macali^ter,  who  terms  the  extensor  of  the  first 
\>\\3\m\x,  extensor  pollicis  minor,  :ind  the  extensor  of  the  second  phalanx  extensor  pollicis  major.  The  names  used  in  the  text  are,  however, 
more  faniiliar  to  students,  both  in  England  and  America,  and  there  seems  no  good  reason  for  any  change. 

While  speaking  of  these  muscles,  it  may  be  mentioned  that  their  tendons,  viz.,  those  of  the  extensor  ossis  metacarpi  pollicis  and  extensor 
primi  intemodii  pollicis  on  the  radial  side,  and  that  of  the  extensor  secundi  intemodii  pollicis  on  the  ulnar  side,  bound  the  deep  hollow  to  be 
seen  on  the  outer  (radial)  side  of  the  wrist  and  behind  the  metacarpal  bone  of  the  thumb,  when  this  member  is  fully  extended.  This  hollow  is 
known  as  the  tabatii're  anatomique,  or  anatomical  sntiff-lox  (called  by  Toldt  /oz'cola  radialis,  see  Fig.  575).  Beneath  the  tendons  of 
the  extensors  of  the  thumb,  and  across  the  intervening  hollow,  the  radial  artery  pa-sses  from  the  front  to  the  back  of  the  wrist,  its  direction 
being  indicated  by  a  line  from  the  front  of  the  styloid  process  of  the  radius  to  the  proximal  end  of  the  first  interosseous  space ;  and  the 
arterj-  is  ci^ossed  by  the  superficial  radial  vein,  which  usually  forms  a  distinct  prominence  in  the  hollow  between  the  tendcns. — Tr. 

3  liy  English  anatomists  the  supinator  and  extensor  muscles  are,  like  those  of  the  front  of  the  forearm,  divided  simply  into  two  layers  :  a 
superficial,  containing  seven  muscles,  viz.,  the  supinator  radii  longus,  extensor  carpi  radialis  longior,  extensor  carpi  radialis  brevior,  extensor 
comnmnis  digiloriiin,  extensor  miuimi  digiti,  extensor  carpi  ulnaris,  and  anconeus  muscles  ;  and  a  deep  layer,  containing  five  muscles,  viz., 
the  supinator  radii  brevis,  extensor  ossis  metacarpi  pollicis.  extensor  primi  intemodii  pollicis,  extensor  secundi  intemodii  pollicis,  and 
extensor  indicis  muscles.  The  author's  classification  of  these  muscles  is  to  be  found  in  the  description  at  the  foot  of  Figs.  574,  575,  and 
576.— Tk. 

Fig.  574. — The  Superficial  Layer  {see  note  "above)  of  the  Dorsal  Group  of  Muscles  of  the  Right  Forearm: 
Extensor  Communis  Digitorum,  Extensor  Carpi  Ulnaris,  and  Anconeus  Muscles.  The  Radial  Group 
OF  Muscles  seen  from  the  Dorsal  Side,  and  the  Deep  Layer  of  Muscles  of  the  Dorsal  Group  that 
are  visible  in  the  Distal  Portion  of  the  Forearm  between  the  Superficial  Layer  ok  Dorsal  Muscles 
ND  the  Radial  Muscles  :  Extensor  Carpi  Radialis  Longior  and  Extensor  Carpi  Radialis  Brevior 
(Muscles  of  the  Radial  Group);  Extensor  Ossis  Metacarpi  Pollicis,  Extensor  Primi  Internodii 
Pollicis,  and  Extensor  Secundi  Internodii  Pollicis  (Muscles  of  the  Deep  Dorsal  Layer).  Ligamentum 
Carpi  Dorsale,  the  Posterior  Annular  Ligament  of  the  Wrist. 


Musculi  antibrachii— Muscles  of  the  forearm. 


THE  MUSCLES   OF   THE   UPPER  EXTREMITY 


327 


Brachialis  auticus  muscle 

M    l)raclllall^ 

Supinator  radii  longus  muscle 
M.  bracliioradialis 


Extensor  carpi  radialis  longior  muscle 
M.  extensor  carpi  radialis  longus 


Aperture  for  the  posterior  interosseous  nerve, 

between  the  two  layers  of  the  supinator 

radii  brevis  muscle 

Extensor  carpi  radialis  brevior  muscle 
M.  extensor  carpi  radialis  brevis 

Supinator  radii  breris  muscle 
M.  supinator 


Intermuscular  septum 
Septum  inlennusculare 

Extensor  carpi  radialis  brevior  muscle 

M.  extensor  carpi  radialis  brevis 

Extensor  carpi  radialis  longior  muscle 
M.  extensor  carpi  radialis  longus 


Beep  fascia  of  the  forearm 
Fascia  antibrachii 


Posterior  annular  ligament  of  the  wrist 

1-ig    carpi  dorsalc 


Fascia  of  the  dorsum  of  the  band 

I'ascia  dorsalis  manus 


'  Or  Jlejcor /ttr/oralus  mvacXc 


Biceps  flexor  cubiti  muscle 
M.  biceps  bracliii 


Semilunar  or  bicipital  fascia 

I.aci-iHis  fibrosus 


Pronator  radii  teres  muscle  humeral  head) 

M   pronator  teres  ;cnpui  luimcrale) 

-.Aperture  for  the  median  nerve  between 
the  two  heads  of  the  pronator 
radii  teres  muscle 
Pronator  radii  teres  muscle  (ulnar  head) 

M.  pronator  teres  (caput  ulnare) 


Flexor  carpi  radialis  muscle 

M.  flexor  carpi  radialis 

Flexor  sublimis  digitonun  muscle'  (radial 
head) 

M.  flexor  diKitorum  sublimis  (caput  radiale) 

Supinator  radii  longus  muscle 
M.  brachioradialis 


Tabatiire  anatomique,  or  anatomical 
snuff  box- 
Foveola  radialis 


Dorsal  metacarpophalangeal 

subcutaneous  bursa 
Bursa  subcutanea  metacarpo- 
phalangea  dorsalis 

Dorsal  subcutaneous  bursa 
of  the  index  finger 
lUirsa  subcutanea 
digiti  II.  dorsalis 


=/. 


3  Sec  second  paragraph  of  note  '  lo  p.  336. 


Fig. 


575. — The  Arrangement  of  the  Muscles  in  the  Deeper  P.\rt  of  the  Antecubital 

I'OSSA   WHEN    the    HaNI)    IS    PKONATED. 

The  muscles  of  the  radial  (jroup,  with  the  exception  of  the  deepest  nf  these,  the  supinator  radii  brevis, 
have  been  partly  removed.  The  semilunar  or  bicipital  fascia  h.as  been  cut  acioss,  and  its  distal 
extremity  has  been  dr.iwn  inwards  together  with  the  pronator  radii  teres  muscle,  in  order  to 
display  the  ulnar  he.id  of  this  muscle.  In  this  dislal  half  of  the  forearm  and  on  the  b.ick  of  the 
hand  wc  ^ec  the  deep  fascia  ami  the  posterior  annular  ligament  of  the  wrist. 


Musculi  antibrachii—  Muscles  of  the  forearm. 


328 


THE  MUSCLES    OF   THE    UPPER   EXTREMITY 


Triceps  extensor  cubiti  muscle  (internal    ■/ f- 

or  deep  head)  /  v  y ,  « 

M.  triceps  brachii  (caput  mediale)  /    f 


Anconeus  muscle 
M.  anconseus 


M.  pronator  teres 


Radius 

Radius 


Extensor  secundi  internodii  pollicis  or  . 
extensor  longus  pollicis  muscle' 

M,  extensor  pollicis  longus 

Extensor  indicis  muscle  - 

M.  extensor  indicis 
proprius 

Styloid  process  of  the  ulna 

Processus  styloideus  ulna; 

Posterior  annular  ligament 
of  the  wrist 

Extensor  carpi  ulnaris  muscle 
M.  extensor  carpi  ulnaris 


Capitellum  of  the  htunerus 

Capitulum  liumeri 

External  condyle  -Epicondylus  lateralis 

..External  lateral  ligament  of  the  elbow-joint 

Lig.  coll^terale  radiale 

Annular  or  orbicular  ligament 
of  the  radius 
Lii,',  annulare  radii 
Supinator  radii  brevis  muscle 

"M.  supinator 


Pronator  radii  teres  muscle 


Extensor  ossis  metacarpi  pollicis  or 

abductor  longus  pollicis  muscle' 

M    abductor  pollicis  longus 


Extensor  primi  internodii  pollicis  or 
extensor  brevis  pollicis  muscle' 

M.  extensor  pollicis  brevis 

.Extensor  carpi  radialis  brevier  muscle 

M.  extensor  carpi  radialis  brevis 

_  Extensor  carpi  radialis  longior 
muscle 
M.  extensor  carpi  radialis  longus 


'  See  note  to  p.  326. 

Fig.  576. — The  Deep  Layer  of  the  Dorsal  Group  of  Muscles  of  the  Right  Forearm, 
displayed  by  the  removal  of  the  extensor  communis  digitorum  and  the  extensor 
Carpi  Ulnaris  Muscles  :  Extensor  Ossis  Metacarpi  Pollicis,  Extensor  Primi  Inter- 
nodii Pollicis,  Extensor  Secundi  Internodii  Pollicis,  and  Extensor  Indicis  Muscles. 

In  the  proximal  segment  of  the  pronated  forearm,  the  supinator  radii  brevis  muscle  and  the  anconeus 

muscle  are  seen. 


Musculi  antibrachii- Muscles  of  the  forearm. 


THE  MUSCLES  OF   THE   UPPER  EXTREMITY 


329 


Triceps  extensor  cubiti  muscle  (internal . 
or  deep  head) 

M.  tricepa  bracliii  (caput  mediale) 


Supinator  radii  longus  muscle 
M.  brachioradialis 


Posterior  ligament  of  the  elbow-joint 

Capsula  articularis 

Triceps  extensor  cubiti  muscle  (tendon 

of  insertion) 

M.  triceps  bracliii 

Olecranon . 

Ulecranun 

Flexor  carpi  ulnaris  mnsole  (ulnar  head) 
M.  flexor  carpi  ulnaris  (caput  uliiarc) 

Intermuscular  septum  ' 

Septum  iiUermusculare 

Anconeus  mtiscle   origin'] 
M.  ancona;us 

Posterior  border  of  the  ulna  "' 

Mar^o  dorsalis  ulnos 

Extensor  carpi  ulnaris  muscle  ' 


Intermusctilar  septum 

Septum  intermusculare 


r- 


Extensor  carpi  radialis  longior  muscle 

--M.  extensor  carpi  radialis  longus 

Anconeus  muscle  (insertion') 
M.  ancona-nis 
L—  External  condyle — Epicondylus  lateralis 
"__    Extensor  carpi  radialis  brevior 
M.  cxtcnsdr  carpi  radialis  I)re\is 
.  Annular  or  orbictilar  ligament  of  the  radius 

Lig.  annulare  radii 
Neck  of  the  radius — Collum  radii 
"~  Extensor  communis  digitorum  muscle 
M.  extensor  digitorum  communis 

'  Supinator  radii  brevis  muscle 
M.  supinator 

.,  Aperture  for  the  posterior  interosseous  nerve, 
between  the  two  layers  of  the  supinator 
radii  brevis  muscle 

Extensor  ossis  metacarpi  poUicis  or  abductor 
longus  poUicis  muscle- 

M.  aliductor  pollicis  longus 
~'  Interosseous  membrane  or  ligament 
of  the  forearm 
Membrana  interossea  antibrachii 


Extensor  indicis  muscle 

M,  extensor  indicis 
proprius 


Styloid  process  of  the  ulna 
Processus  styloideus  ulna;      / 


Tendon  of  insertion  of  the  extensor 

carpi  ulnaris  muscle 

Posterior  or  dorsal  proximal  intermetacarpal 

ligaments     I. irk   basium  dorsalia 

Fourth  dorsal  interosseous  muscle  (origin) 

Third  dorsal  interosseous  muscle  (origin)   - 


Third  and  fourth  dorsal  interosseous    -  .-r 
muscles  i distal  extremities)  U 

Dorsal  aponeuroses  of  the  extensor 
tendons 


I  Sec  note  3  to  p.  319. 


Extensor  primi  intemodii  poUicis  or  extensor 
brevis  pollicis  muscle- 

M.  extensor  pcjllicis  brevis 

Extensor  seciuidi  intemodii  pollicis  or  extensor 
longus  pollicis  muscle- 

M,  extensor  pollicis  longus 


Tendon  of  insertion  of  the  supinator  radii 

longus  muscle 
Styloid  process  of  the  radius 

I'rocessus  styloiileus  radii 

Extensor  carpi  radialis  brevior  muscle 

M.  extensor  carpi  radialis  brevis 

Extensor  carpi  radialis  longior  muscle 
M    extensor  car|>i  radialis  longus 
Insertion  of  the  extensor  ossis  metacarpi 
pollicis  muscle- 
First  dorsal  interosseous  or  abductor  indicia 
muscle  (origini 
M.  interosseus  dorsalis  I. 

Second  dorsal  interosseous  muscle  (origin 

M.  ini.r.i-^ciis  .li.r...li-  (I 

Distal  extremities  of  the  first  and  second  dorsal 
interosseous  muscles 

Partial  insertion  of  the  first  dorsal  Interosseous  or  abductor 
indicis  muscle  Into  the  dorsal  aponeurosis  of  the 
extensor  tendon 
Partial  Insertion  of  the  dorsal  aponeurosis  of  the  extensor 

tendon  into  the  base  of  the  proximal  phalanx 
Dorsal  aponeurosis  of  the  extensor  tendon  divided 
lon^tudlnally 

% 

'  Sec  note  '  to  p.  326, 


Fig.  577. — Attaciimknt  of  Muscles  to  the  Doksal  Sukiace  ov  the  Fokeakm  and  the  Hand. 


Musculi  antibrachii  -  Muscles  of  the  forearm. 


42 


330 


THE  MUSCLES   OF   J  HE    UPPER   EXTREMITY 


Extensor  minimi  digiti  muscle 

M.  extensor  digiti  quinti  proprius 

Extensor  communis  digitorum  muscle  .^. 
M.  extensor  digitorum  communis 

Extensor  indicis  muscle  ~ 

M.  extensor  indicis  proprius 
Extensor  carpi  ulnaris  muscle 


Head  of  the  ulna 
Capitulum  ulnae 


Synovial  sheath  of  the  tendon  of  the  extensor 

carpi  ulnaris  muscle  1 1  > 

Synovial  sheath  of  the  tendons  of  the  extensor 

communis  digitorum  and  extensor  indicis 

muscles  ( ; ) 

Synovial  sheath  of  the  tendon  of  the  extensor 

minimi  digiti  muscle  ( ;) 

Vincula  of  the  extensor  tendons  ,^ 
Junctura;  tendinum  "^-»_ 


Dorsal  subcutaneous  meta- 
carpophalangeal bursa 
Bursa  subcutanea  raeta- 
carpophalangea 
dorsalis 


Dorsal  subcutaneous  bursae  of  the  fingers' 
Bursae  subcutanea;  digitorum  dorsales 


fi)  Vagina  tendinis  m.  extensorls  carpi  ulnaris 

(2)  Vagina  tendinum  mm.  extensoris  digitorum  communis 

et  extensoris  indicis 
(3J  Vagina  tendinis  m.  extensoris  digiti  quinti 


Extensor  ossis  metacarpi  poUicis  and  extensor 

primi  internodii  poUicis  muscles' 
Mm.  abductor  longus  et  extensor  brevis  pollicis 

Extensor  secundi  internodii  pollicis  muscle' 

M.  extensor  pollicis  longus 

Tendons  of  the  extensor  carpi  radialis  longior 

and  extensor  carpi  radialis  brevier 

muscles 


Posterior  annular  ligament  of  the  wrist 

Synovial  sheath  of  the  tendons  of  the  ex- 

-  tensor  ossls  metacarpi  pollicis  and  extensor 

primi  internodii  pollicis  muscles'  di 
Synovial  sheath  of  the  tendons  of  the  ex- 
tensor carpi  radialis  longior  and  extensor 
carpi  radialis  brevier  muscles  (5) 
Synovial  sheath  of  the  tendon  of  the  extensor 
secimdi  internodii  pollicis  muscle"  (6) 

^^  Dorsal  interosseous  muscles 
S^*^  Mm.  interossei  dorsales 


Dorsal  subcutaneous  meta- 
carpophalangeal bursa 
Bursa  subcutanea  meta- 
carpophalangea 
dorsalis 


^  Intermetacarpophalangeal  burss 
Bursae  intermetacarpophalang^ae 


(4)  V?gina  tendinum  mm.  abducloris  longi  et 
extensoris  brevis  pollicis 

(5)  Vagina  tendinum  mm.  extensorum  carpi 
radialium 

(6)  Vagina  tendinis  m.  extensoris  pollicis  longi 


'  See  note  ^  to  p.  326. 

Fig.  578. — The    Disposition  of  the    Extensor   Tendons  at  the  B.\ck  of  the  Wrist  and 
Hand,  and  the  Synovial  Sheaths  of  these  Tendons.     Right  Hand.    The  Connexions 

BETWEEN    the    ExTENSOR    TENDONS     (VINCULA)     ON    THE     DORSUM    OF    THE     HaND,    AND    THE 

Dorsal  Aponeuroses  of  the  Extensor  Tendons.  The  Intermetacarpoph.\langeal 
BuRs.E,  the  Dorsal  Subcutaneous  Met.\carpophalangeal  Burs.e,  and  the  Dorsal 
Subcutaneous  Burs^  of  the  Fingers.    The  Dorsal  Interosseous  Muscles. 

The  synovial  sheaths  of  the  tendons  were  injected  with  strong  alcohol  before  dissection.  A  portion 
of  the  posterior  wall  has  been  removed  from  the  synovial  sheath  of  the  tendons  of  the  extensor 
communis  digitorum  and  extensor  indicis  nuiscles. 


Musculi  manus — Muscles  of  the  hand. 


THE  MUSCLES   OF  THE   UPPER  EXTREMITY 


331 


The  ulna 
Ulna 


The  radius 

Radius 


Canals  for  the  tendons— 

of  the  extensor  secundi  intemodii  poUicis 
muscle' 

of   the  extensor  communis    digitorum 
and  extensor  indicis  muscles 

of  the  extensor  minimi   digiti   muscle  - 
of  the  extensor  carpi  ulnaris  muscle 


Tendon  of  the  extensor 
carpi  ulnaris  muscle 

Dorsal  interosseous  muscles 
Mm.  interossei  dorsales 


Dorsal  aponeuroses  of  the 

extensor  tendons 

Aponeuroses  tendimim 

extensorum  digitorum 


Canals  for  the  tendons  — 

of  the  extensor  carpi  radialis  longior  and 

extensor  carpi  radialis  brevior  muscles 
of  the  extensor  ossis  metacarpi  pollicis  and 

extensor  primi  intemodii  pollicis  muscles' 
Capsular  ligament 

Capsul.t  a[ticul:iris 

Bursa  of  the  extensor  carpi  radialis  hrevior  muscle- 

rs.!  in.  cxlcnsoris  carpi  radialis  brcvis 

Tendon  of  the  extensor  carpi  radialis  longior  muscle 


Dorsal  aponeurosis  of  the  extensor 

tendons  of  the  thumb 

Aponeurosis  lendinum  extensorum 

pollicis 


Adductor  pollicis  muscle' 


'  Sec  note  '  to  p.  326.  '  This  bursa  is  situate  beneath  the  tendon  close  to  its  insertion.— Tr.  3  See  note  *  to  p  324. 

Fig.  579.— The  Dors.\l  Aponeuroses  of  the  Extensor  Tendons.    Right  Hand.    Dorsai,  Interosseous  Muscles. 

The  osseo-fibrous  cin.ils  for  tlie  extensor  tendons  liave  been  opened  by  the  removal  of  the  posterior  annular  ligament  of 
the  wrist.  The  distal  extremity  of  the  tendon  of  tile  extensor  carpi  radialis  brevior  muscle  has  been  turned  down- 
wards, in  order  to  display  the  bursa  that  lies  beneath  it. 


Dorsal  aponeurosis 


Vincula  tendinum 
Tendon  of  the  flexor  sublimis  digitorum  muscle' 


7i 


Metacarpal  bone 

Os  mctacarpalc 

Dorsal  interosseous  muscle 
M.  interosseus  tk  rsalis 
Lumbricalis  muscle 


Tendon  of  the  flexor  profundus 
digitorum  muscle ' 


»  I'i'ncu/a  Temfhtuni.— These  arc  foltU  .if  *.ynovial  tii'  tnhtatic,  connecting  ilic  flexor  tendons  (o  one  annihcr  and  ta  ihc  ph.iIanRCS. 
Their  nomenclature  is  soniewhnt  v.iria1))c.  Macniister  writes  (*»/.  <-//.,  p.  308):  "The  synovial  mcmhranc  of  the  digital  sheath  enwraps 
the  two  tendons  at  first,  and  the  deep  tendon  is  tied  to  the  hone  hy  one  or  two  flat  hands  (rrfiftitcu/a).  Where  the  tctidi)ns  paw  each  other 
Ihey  arc  generally  free,  but  when  the  deep  tendon  has  passed  throuch.  it  is  tied  to  the  su|xrrricial  tendon,  now  underlyinR  it.  by  a  soft 
round  cord  (^T-incu/um).  Finally  the  deep  tendon  is  tietl  to  the  distalcnd  of  the  >c»:ond  phalanx  by  a  flat  rctinacu.'um  iM/enus."  Accord- 
ing to  {^uain  {i^p.cit.,  vol.  ii.,  p.  aaS),  *'  The  s>*novial  mrmbranc  forms  «iniall  folds  (jnn^uia  actfssorin  tftuiinum')  between  the  tendons 
and  the  i>oncs.  There  arc  two  sets  of  these  :  the  one.  It'o^inenta  hra'ta,  broad  anil  membranous,  passing  between  the  ten*'  -  -  •"  "  ''"-ir 
insert i->n  and  the  lower  part  of  the  phalanx  immediately  above  ",  the  otiier,  /(ctimrn/a  hncit.  slender  and  lc*.!i  constant  1 .1  ^o 

tendons  at  a  higher  level.     Contamed  in  the  liKamcnlum  breve  of  the  deep  flexor  is  a  sniall  band  of  yellow  elastic  tissu-  t 
flax'utti),  which  stretches  from  the  tendon  to  the  head  of  the  second  phalanx,  and  may  asi>\i,i  in  drawing  down  the  tcnduu  ..;.ci  ,,,,.,*  of 
th«  fingers." — Tk. 

»  Or  JItxor  fitr/oratus  muscle.  3  Ot  fltxor per/orans  muscle. 

Fig.  580. — The  Distal  KxTRr..\in  iks  of  thk  Fi.kxor  and  Exti.nsor  Tkndons  of  thk  Kir.iiT  Middli-:  Finger  see.v 

FROM  THE   RaIHAI.  SiDE.      THE  RELATION  OF  THE  LUMIIRICAI.IS  AND  OF  THE  INTEROSSEOUS  MUSCLE  TO  THE  DORSAL 

Aponeurosis  of  the  Extensor  Tendon.    \'incula  Tendinum  {see  twtc  *  aboi'c). 


Musculi  manus  -Muscles  of  the  hand. 


42- 


332 


THE  MUSCLES   OF   THE   UPPER   EXTREMTFY 


First  lumbricalis  muscle 

RI.  lumbricalis  I.  I 


Tendon  of  the  palmaris  longus  muscle 


Deep  fascia  of  the  forearm 
tabcia  antibrachii 


Anterioi' annular  ligament  of  the 

wrist — Lig.  carpi  volare 
Aperture  for  the  ulnar  artery 

Talmaris  brevis  muscle 


Palmar  fascia 
Aponeurosis  palmaris 


Fourth  lumbricalis  muscle 
M.  lumbricalis  IV. 


Superficial  transverse 

ligament  of  the  fingers 

Fasciculi  transversi 

aponeurosis  palmaris 


Fig.  581. — Aponeurosis  Palmaris,  Deep  Fascia  of  the  Palm,  or  Palmar  Fascia  ;  the 
Insertion  of  the  Tendon  of  the  Palmaris  Longus  Muscle  into  this  Fascia;  the 
Processes  passing  from  the  Palmar  Fascia  to  the  Digital  Sheaths  ;  the  Super- 
ficial Transverse  Ligament  of  the  Fingers.     Palmaris  Brevis  Muscle. 


Musculi  manus — Muscles  of  the  hand. 


THE   MUSCLES   OF   THE    UPPER  EXTREMITY 


333 


Tendon  of  the  flexor  longus  poUicis  muscl 


Synovial  sheath  of  the  tendon  of 
the  flexor  longus  pollicis  muscle 

\'agina  m.  Ilcxuris  [lollicis  longi 


Digital  synovial  sheaths  of 
the  flexor  tendons 

Vagina;  tcndiiium  diyitales 


Tendons  of  the  flexor  sublimis  digitorum' 
and  flexor  profundus  digitorum-  muscles 
Tendon  of  the  flexor  carpi  ulnaris  muscle 


Synovial  sheath  of  the  tendons  of  the  flexor 

sublimis  digitorum'  and  flexor  profundus 

digitorum-  muscles 

Vagina  tcndinum  mm.  ilcxonim 

communium 


Fig.   5^2 


-The   Synovial   Sheaths  of  the   Flexor    TEN'noNS,^  prepared   after    in'jecting   them    with 

Alcohol.    Right  Hand. 
The  palm.ir  fascia  and  the  anterior  annular  ligament  of  the  wrist  have  been  removed. 

Flexor  sublimis  digitorum  muscle' 
M.  flexor  digitorum  sublimis 

Flexor  longus  pollicis  muscle 

M.  flexor  pollicis  longus 
Tendon  of  the  flexor  carpi 
radialis  muscle  \ 


Synovial  sheath  of  the  tendon  of  the  flexor 

longus  pollicis  muscle 

Vagina  tendmis  m.  flexoris  pollicis  longi 

Synovial  sheath  of  the  tendon  of  the  flexor 

carpi  radialis  muscle 
Vagina  tendinis  m    fluxuris  carpi  radi.it'is 

Remains  of  the  anterior  annular 

ligament  of  the  wrist 

Synovial  sheath  of  the  extensor  oasis  metacarpi ..-'' 
pollicis  and  extensor  primi  intemodii  pollicis 
muscles' —Vagina  tundiniim  mm    abductoris 
longi  et  extensoris  brevis  pollicis 

Tendon  of  the  supinator  radii  longus  muscle 


The  radius 
Radius 


( Flexor  profundus  digitorum  mnscle- 

(  M.  flexor  digitorum  profundus 


Flexor  carpi  ulnaris  muscle 


Bursa  of  the  flexor  carpi  ulnaris  muscle' 

"~-   IJursa  m    flexoris  carpi  ulnaris 

Synovial  sheaths  of  the  tendons  of  the  flexor  sublimis 
digitoruni'  and  flexor  profundus  digitorum  muscles 

\'u>;jii,i  iciidiltuiii  iittii.  Ilcxuruiii  Luaiiiuitiiuiu 

•Mesolenon' 

Pronator  quadratus  muscle 

Interosseous  membrane  or  ligament  of  the  forearm 
Menibrana  intcrossea  aniibracbii 

The  ulna 

Ulna 


Oryfiri" 


.^Ic. 


*  Ot yftnyr /fi^,)Hif us  mu-^lc. 
3  1  he  synox'i.il  shc.tlh  of  the  common  flexors  In  the  cnn.-il  of  the  cirp' 

known  .is  the  t'rmt  ctrfiat  hursa.     It  cxtcTuls  upw.inU  to  the  level  of  it  • 

the  mct.iL-arp:!!  Itone^   rndini;  in  btintl  pouches  in  the  ct^c  of  the  liulox,  nii<l<JI>' „....„....„,     .       .      _  , 

in  the  CISC  of  the  little  finKer,  liowcvr.  the  (licit.ll  shcith  of  the  flexor  len'li>n  is  conttniioiiv  with  the  v,xra.\  c.nrp.ll  burs.!.     The  sheath  of 
the  flexor  lonuti^  polliris  is  entirely  distinct  in  the  carpal  canal  from  the  sheath  of  the  common  flexors.— Tb. 

*  Sec  note  '  to  p.  126.  5  This  l.ursa  is  sitn.-tlc  l>cneath  the  tendon  close  to  its  insertion. — Tr. 

^  J/«<>j'_rw<»M. —This  term  is  not  iiicd  by  Knulish  anatomists.     The  synovial  shc.ith  of  the  i:>inini<Mi  flexor*  beneath  the  anterior  annular 
liKament  is  in  most  cases  divided  by  an  incomplete  septum  attached  to  the  n 
that  the  term  mtiotenon  is  applied.— Tk. 


.interior  .annular  lii:amcnt  of  the  wri.sl  Ls  sometimes 

1  articulation,  and  downwards  about  halfway  along 

nd  tiiiK  fillers,  the  digital  sheaths  of  which  are  separate; 


:  middle  tinker  tendon  of  the  deep  flexor.     It  is  to  this  stnicturc 


Fig.  583.— The  Synovial  Sheaths  ok  the  Flexor  Tendons,  displayed,  after  the  Removal  of  the  Anterior 
Anni'i.ak  Ligament  of  the  Wrist,  by  turning  down  the  Flexor  Tendons  into  the  Palm  of  the  Hand. 
LEhT  Hand. 

The  synovial  sheath's  and  bursa:  h.ive  all  been  opened. 


Musculi  manus— Muscles  of  the  hand. 


334 


THE   MUSCLES   OF   THE   UPPER  EXTREMITY 


Tendon  of  the  supinator  radii  longus  muscle 

Pronator  quadrat  us  muscle        ^'^, 

Tendon  of  the  flexor  carpi  radialis  muscle 


Tendon  of  the  extensor  ossis 
metacarpi  poUicis  muscle' 


Opponens  poUicis  muscle 

Abductor  poUicis  muscle 

W.  abductor  pollicis  brevis 
Flexor  brevis  pollicis  muscle  (superficial 

head)- 
M.  flexor  pollicis  brevis  (caput  superficiale) 
Flexor  brevis  pollicis  muscle  (deep  head)'-  ^-  ' 
M.  flexor  pollicis  brevis  (caput 
profundum) 
Adductor  pollicis  muscle-- 

First  dorsal  interosseous  or- 
abductor  indicis  muscle 


Lumbricales  muscles 
M.  lumbriLaltb 


Middle  vaginal  band' 

Lig.  vaginale 


Tendon  of  the  flexor  carpi  ulnaris  muscle 


Anterior  annular  ligament  of  the  wrist 
Lig.  carpi  transversum 

Abductor  minimi  digiti  muscle 
M.  abductor  digiti  quinti 
Opponens  minimi  digiti  muscle 
"  M.  opponens  digiti  quinti 

Third  and  fourth  dorsal 

interosseous  muscles 
Second  and  third  palmar 
—    interosseous  muscles 

Flexor  brevis  minimi  digiti  muscle 

M.  tlexur  dislli  ciuinti  l.r.•^is 

Transverse  metacarpal  ligament  (anterior  or 
palmar  distal  intermetacarpal  ligaments) 

I,iR^.L.ipilulorum(ossiuniiuetai:arpalmm)triiii!.versa 

Superior  vaginal  bands'^ 

'  I'ibra;  annulares 

Tendon  of  the  flexor  sublimis 

digitorum^  muscle 
~  Superior  crucial  bands ' 
Fibra:  cruciata; 


Middle  vaginal  band' 
Lig,  vaginale 


Tendon  of  the  flexor  profundus 
digitorum  muscle"^ 


*  See  note  *  to  p.  ^26. 

~  See  note  -  to  p.  324.  ^ 

3  The  aultior  does  not  enumerate  all  the  component  parts  of  the  anterior  wall  of  the  digital  sheaths  of  the  flexor  tendons.  These  are  : 
(1)  Superior  -^aginat  /'.twrt' (called  by  Toldt  flbr(^  annulares),  strong  transverse  fibres  crossmg  the  tendon  at  the  level  of  the  upper  half  of 
the  proximal  phatan.v(to  the  rough  margins  of  the  anterior  surface  of  which  bone  the  fibres  are  attached)  ;  {^i)  superior  a-ucial  band  (z-a^ft^ 
by  "Toldt  fibra^  cruciaitr),  X-shaped  bands  at  the  level  of  the  distal  end  of  the  proximal  phalanx  ;  (3)  middle  z'oginul  band,  a  slight 
transverse  slip  at  the  level  of  the  proximal  inlerphalangeal  articulation  (called  by  Toldt  Ugatnentutn  vaginale)  \  (4)  oblique  band,  passing 
downwards  and  inwards  across  the  proximal  extremity  of  the  medial  phalanx  ;  (5)  inferior  vaginal  band,  across  the  middle  of  the  medial 
phalanx  ;  (6)  inferior  crucial  band,  in  front  of  the  distal  interphalangeal  articulation. — Tr. 

4  Or  flexor  perforatus  muscle. 

5  Or  flexor  pcrforans  iimi^^. 

Fig.  584.— The  Superficial  L.ayer  of  Muscles  of  the  Thenar  Eminence  :  Abductor 
Pollicis  Muscle  ;  the  Superficial  Head  and  a  Portion  of  the  Deep  Head  of  the 
Flexor  Brevis  Pollicis  Muscle  {see  note'^  to  p.  2,2j,).  The  Superficl^l  Muscles  of  the 
Hypothenar  Eminence  :  Abductor  Minimi  Digiti  and  Flexor  Brevis  Minimi  Digiti 
Muscles.  Adductor  Pollicis  Muscle  {see  note  ^  to  p.  324).  Third  and  Fourth  Dorsal 
Interosseous  and  Second  and  Third  Palmar  Interosseous  Muscles.  Pronator 
Quadratus  Muscle.    Vaginal  Ligaments  {see  note  ^  above'^.     Right  Hand. 


Musculi  manus  — Muscles  of  the  hand. 


THE  MUSCLES   OF  THE   UPPER  EXTREMITY 


335 


Tendon  of  the  flexor  carpi  radialis  muscle 

Tendon  of  the  extensor  ossis  metacarpi    

pollicis  muscle' 

Abductor  pollicis  muscle 

M.  abductor  pollicis  brevis 
Flexor  brevis  pollicis  muscle- 

( superficial  head  M  . ) 
Opponens  pollicis  muscle 

Flexor  brevis  pollicis  muscle- .. 
(deep  head) I. ) 
Adductor  pollicis  muscle-  - 


(i)  M.  flexor  pollicis  brevis  ^caput  superficialc) 
(3)  M.  flexor  pollicis  brevis  (caput  profundum) 


'Commissure  of  the  tendons 

Cliiabiiui  tendinuni' 


Abductor  minimi  digiti  muscle 

.M    abducinr  di>:iii  iiuinti 
-Pisi  uncinate  ligament — Lig.  pisohamatum 
Pisimetacarpal  ligament— LIr.  pisometacarpeum 
Unciform  process  of  the  unciform  bone 
Hamulus  ossis  tiamali 


Opponens  minimi  digiti  muscle 

M.  opponens  digiti  iiiiiiiti 
Flexor  brevis  minimi  digiti  muscle 
M.  Ilexor  digiti  tiuinti  l>re\*is 
First,  second,  and  third  palmar 

interosseous  muscles  ( ;) 
First,  second,  third,  and  fourth  dorsal 
interosseous  muscles 

Mm.  inliiv.s-tidois.Lk-s  1.-  IV. 

Vaginal  ligaments,  divided  longitudinally 
Ligg.  vaginalia 


^Tendons  of  the  flexor  sublimis  digitorum 
muscle' 

.  -^  Insertions  of  the  tendons  of  the  flexor 
profundus  digitorum  muscle'' 


(3)  Mm.  interossei  volares  I.— III. 


'  See  note  >  to  p.  336. 
3  See  note  *  to  p.  334. 

3  0\  Jlexor  ptr/iiratus  muscle. 

4  Chiastna  Temfinutti. — This  term  Is  not  commonly  employed  by  English  anatomists.  It  is  applied  by  the  author  to  the  commissure 
by  uhich  the  two  divisions  of  the  tendon  of  the  superficial  flexor,  after  splitting  for  the  passage  of  the  tendon  of  the  deep  flexor,  are  reunited 
for  a  short  space;  hetow  this  commissure  the  tendon  of  the  superficial  flexor  divides  once  more  into  two  parts,  which  pass  to  the  Lateral 
ridges  of  the  medial  phalanx. — Tk. 

5  The  first  dorsa!  interosseous  muscle  is  also  called  the  ttluiuctor  indicis  muscle.  — Tr. 
*  Or  Jlexor pcr/orans  muscle. 

Fig.   585. — The    Deep   L.wer  of   Muscles  of  the  Thenar   and    Hypothenar   Eminences, 

DISPLAYED    BY     THE    REMOVAL    OF    THE    AUDUCTOU    POLLICIS    AND    AbDUCTOR    MiNIMI     DiGITI 

Muscles,  and  also  of  the  Superficial  Head  of  the  Flexor  Brevis  Pollicis  Muscle: 
Opponens  Pollicis  Muscle;  Deep  Head  of  the  Flexor  Brevis  Pollicis  Muscle  (stv 
Ho<e  - /y />.  324)  ;  Opponens  Minimi  Dic.rn;  Flexor  Brevis  Minimi   Digiti. 

By  the  removal  of  that  portion  of  the  aclikictor  pollicis  muscle  which  arises  from  the  third  metacarpal 
bone,  the  portion  of  this  muscle  arising;  from  the  carpal  ligaments,  antl  the  dorsal  and  p.ilmar 
interosseous  muscles,  are  exposed  to  view.  The  vaginal  ligaments  of  the  flexor  tendons  have 
been  opened,  and  in  the  index  and  middle  lingers  the  commissure  of  the  tendons  (sec  note  *  above) 
of  the  superficial  flexor  is  shown. 


Musculi  manus  — Muscles  of  the  hand. 


336 


THE  MUSCLES   OF   THE    UPPER  EXTREMITY 


Scaphoid  bone 

Os  naviculare 

•^  Tendon  of  the  flexor  carpi  radialis  muscle  ^ 

Abductor  pollicis  muscle 

M.  abductor  pollicis 
brevis 
Opponens  pollicis  muscle 
Extensor  ossis  metacarpi  pollicis  muscle'   -.,4f^'y 
M.  abductor  pollicis  loiigu 

Flexor  brevis  pollicis  muscle^  (superficial  — 
head) 

M.  flexor  pollicis  brt.'vis  icjiput  Sliperfici:ile) 

Flexor  brevis  pollicis  muscle^  (deep  head)— 

i\I.  Ilcxur  polliciN  hte\is(.  .iput  profumluni) 

First  dorsal  interosseous  or  abductor., 
indicis  muscle 

M.  irU'jros^en^  dorsalis  I 

Flexor  brevis  pollicis  muscle=  (10—;-- 

Sertion)  — M-  Ik-.xor  pollicis  brevis 

Abductor  poUicis  muscle ] 

(insertion) 
^I.  abductor  pollicis  brevis 

Addmtor  pollicis  muscle-- 
( insertion) 
M.  adductor  pollicis 


Flexor  longus  pollicis - 
muscle  linsertion) 
M.  flexor  pollicis 
longus 
First  palmar  interosseous'' 
muscle 
M    internsseus  volaris  I.  /' 

Partial  insertion  of  the  first  dorsal  interosseous 

or  abductor  indicis  muscle  and  of  the  first 
lumbricalis  muscle  into  the  dorsal  aponeurosis 
of  the  extensor  tendon  of  the  index  finger  y 

Tendon  of  the  flexor  sublimis  digitorum  or' 
flexor  perforatus  muscle 
Attachment  of  the  vaginal  ligament 


Insertion  of  the  flexor  sublimis  digitorum  or 
flexor  perforatus  muscle 


Insertion  of  the  flexor  profundus  digitorum  or 
flexor  perforans  muscle 

'  See  note  •  to  p.  326. 


Lunar  (or  semilunar)  bone 

O3  lunatum 

1  Pyramidal  or  cuneiform  bone 
I    Os  triquetrum 

Tendon  of  the  flexor  carpi  ulnaris  muscle 
Anterior  annular  ligament  of  the  wrist 
'  Lig.  carpi  transversum 
, -Pisiform  bone— Os  pisiforme 
Tendon  of  the  extensor  carpi 

ulnaris  muscle 
Abductor  minimi  digiti  muscle 
~"M,  abductor  digiti  quinti 
—  Flexor  brevis  minimi  digiti  muscle 
M    flexor  digiti  quinti  brevis 
Opponens  minimi  digiti  muscle 
M.  opponens  digiti  quinti 
Second  and  third  palmar  interosseous 
muscles  (origin) 
Mm.  interossei  volares  II.  et  111. 
Third  and  fourth  dorsal  interosseous 
,  »'  muscle 

M.  interossei  dorsales  III.  ct  IV. 

Flexor  brevis  minimi  digiti 
muscle 

M.  tlexor  digiti  i|iiinii  brevis 
Abductor  minimi  digiti  muscle 
(partial  insertion  into  the  dorsal 
aponeurosis  of  the  extensor 
tendon)  (I) 
-'  Third  and  fourth  lumbricales 
muscles 

Mm.  lumbricales  III.  et  IV. 

Partial  insertion  of  the  third 

palmar  interosseous  muscle 

into  the  dorsal  aponeurosis  of 

the  extensor  tendon 


Insertion  of  the  flexor  sublimis 

digitorum  or  flexor  perforatus 

muscle 


Insertion  of  the  flexor  pro- 
fundus digitorum  or  flexor 
perforans  muscle 

Insertion  of  the  flexor  sublimis 
digitorum  or  flexor  perforatus 
muscle 
Insertion  of  the  flexor  profundus 
digitorum  or  flexor  perforans 
muscle 

(i)  M.  abductor  digiti  quinti 


See  note  ~  to  p.  324. 


Fig.  586.— Attachment  of  Muscles  to  the  Palmar  Surface  of  the  Hand. 


Musculi  manus — Muscles  of  the  hand. 


MUSCULI   EXTREMITATIS 
INFERIORIS 

THE  MUSCLES 
OF  THE  LOWER  EXTREMITY 


43 


338 


THE  MUSCLES   OF   THE  LOWER  EXTREMITY 


Gluteus  maximus  muscle — 

M.  glutajus  maximus 


Deep  fascia  of  the  thigh,  or  fascia 

lata  (superficial  layer) 
Fascia  lata  (lamina  superficialis) 


Crest  of  the  ilium 

Crista  iliaca 

Anterior  superior  spine  of  the  ilium 

Spina  iliaca  anterior  superior 


Tensor  vaginae  femoris  or 

tensor  fasciae  femoris  muscle 

M.  tensor  fasciae  latae 


—Deep  fascia  of  the  thigh,  or  fascia 

lata  (superficial  layer) 
Fascia  lata  (lamina  superficialis) 


Iliotibial  band  or  ligament 


Fig.  587^. — Deep  Fascia  of  the  Thigh,  or  Fascia  Lata,  seen  from  the  Outer  Side,  with 
THE  Thickened  Portion  of  this  Fascia,  known  as  the  Iliotibial  Band  ok  Ligament; 
Insertion  of  the  Tensor  Vagin.e  Femoris  (Tensor  Fascia  Femoris,  Tensor  Fasci.e 
Lat.e)  Muscle  and  Partial  Insertion  of  the  Gluteus  Maximus  Muscle  into  the 
Iliotibial  Band  or  Ligament.     Right  Thigh. 


Musculi  coxae  et  femoris — Muscles  of  the  hip  and  thigh. 


THE  MUSCLES  OF  THE  LOWER  EXTREMITY 


Spinous  proceaa  of  the  twelfth 

dorsal  vertebra  - 

Processus  spinosus  vertebrae 
thoracalis  XII. 
Intertransversales  mediales  or  inter-  ^ 
acceasorii  muscles  |^ 

Mm.  intenransvcrbani  posteriores  ' 
mediales 


Interspinales  muscles 


Uppermost  portion  of  the  middle 
layer  of  the  lumbar  fascia,  which 
forms  the  posterior  aponeurosis  of 
the  transversalis  abdominis  muscle 

Lig.  luml)ocostale 


Twelfth  rib 


Iliolumbar  ligament 
\.\)i.  iliulumbale 


Gluteus  maximus  muscle 
M.  ylutius  maximus 


Semitendinosus  muscle — 

Biceps  flexor  cruris  muscle  (long  head) 
M.  biceps  femoris  (caput  longum) 


___;  I  Intertransversales  laterales  muscles 
„,--J    Mm.  intcrtr,'iiis\xTsarii  posteriores 
lateralis 


—  Quadratus  lumborum  muscle 


Fig.  588. — Gluteus  Ma.ximus  Muscle,  seen  obliquely  from  Behind  and  Without,  con- 
stituting THE  Superficial  Layer  of  the  External  Muscles  of  the  Hip.  Quadratus 
Lumborum  Muscle;  Interspinales,  Intertransversales  Laterales.  and  Intertrans- 
versales Mediales  or  Interaccessorii  Muscles  of  the  Lumbar  Region  ;  seen  from 
Behind.     Right  Side. 


Musculi  coxae— Muscles  of  the  hip. 


43—* 


340 


THE  MUSCLES   OF   THE  LOWER   EXTREMITY 


Quadratus  lumbonun  muscle 

M.  quadratus  lumborum 


Crest  of  the  ilium 

Crista  iliaca 


Gluteus  maximus  muscle 

(proximal  portion) 

M.  glutaaus  maximus 

Pyriformis  muscle 

M-  piriformis 

Posterior  or  great  sacrosciatic 

ligament 

Li"-  sacrotul^erosum 

Anterior  or  small  sacrosciatic 

ligament 

Lig.  sacrospinosum 

Gemellus  superior  muscle' 


Obturator  intemus  muscle'—— 
Gemellus  inferior  muscle'  — 


Quadratus  femoris  muscle 

Trochanteric  bursa  of  the  gluteus - 

maximus  muscle- 

Bursa  trochanterica  m.  glutaei 

maximi 

Biceps  flexor  cruris  muscle  (long  head) 

M.  biceps  femoris  (caput  longum) 

Semimembranosus  muscle 


Gluteus  medius  muscle 


Iliotibial  band  or 
ligament 


Gluteus  maximus  muscle 
(distal  portion) 
M.  glatarus  maximus 
Vastus  extemus  muscle 
M.  vastus  lateralis 


>  The  gemelH  muscles  may  be  regarded  as  poru  .,  ^i  l':,  ^l::.;ator  intemus  muscle  arising  outside  the  pelvis,  and  for  this  reason 
Macalister  has  given  to  the  three  muscles  the  name  of  triceps  rotator  /emoris  tnnsclc,  but  the  term  is  rarely  used.~TR. 

2  Ihe  trochanteric  bursa  0/  the  gluteus  tuaxiinus  tiiitsch  is  situate,  as  its  name  implies,  between  the  fascial  insertion  of  the  gluteus 
maximus  muscle  and  the  ^eat  trochanter  of  the  femur.  In  most  cases  it  is  a  large  compound  or  muliilocular  bursa,  but  is  occasionally 
represented  by  several  distinct  smaller  bursa:.— Tk. 

Fig.  589. — Second  Layer  of  the  External  Muscles  of  the  Hip,  displayed  by  the  Division 
OF  the  Gluteus  Maximus  Muscle  and  the  Posterior  Portion  of  the  Fascia  Lata:  Gluteus 
Medius  Muscle;  Pyriformis  Muscle;  Obtur.\tor  Internus  and  Gemellus  Superior  and 
Inferior  Muscles;  Quadratus  Femoris  Muscle.  Origin  and  Femoral  Insertion  of  the 
Gluteus  Maximus  Muscle.  Trochanteric  Bursa  of  the  Gluteus  Maximus  Muscle.  Right 
Hip,  seen  from  the  Outer  Side. 


Musculi  coxae — Muscles  of  the  hip. 


THE  MUSCLES   OF   THE  LOWER  EXTREMITY 


341 


Ouadratus  lumbonun  muscle 


.    Crest  of  the  ilium 
Crista  iliaca 


Posterior  superior  spine  of  the  ilium 

Spina  iliaca  posterior  superior 


Pyriformis  muscle 
M.  piriformis 

Posterior  or  great 
sacrosciatic  ligament 
I-ig-  sacrotubcrosum 
Anterior  or  small  sacrosciatic 
ligament     l-i;,'  sacrospinosum 
Gemellus  superior  muscle 
Obturator  intemus  muscle 
Bursa  of  the  obturator  Intemus 

muscle-       IIill^^    III.  Mblur-it'iriv  iincm 

Gemellus  inferior  muscle' 


Tuberosity  of  the  ischium 
Tuber  ischiadicum 


Gluteus  medius  muscle 


Gluteus  minimus  muscle 

Anterior  superior  spine 

of  the  ilium 

Spina  iliaca  anterior 

superior 


Obturator  extemus  muscle 

Great  trochanter 

Trochanter  major 
Quadratus  femoris  muscle 


•  Sec  note  »  to  p.  3^0. 

3  The  hiirsa  o/tlu-  ohturntor  inUrtnis  mtiscU  is  situate  between  the  tendnn  of  the  obtiir.itor  intemus  mUM:lc  and  the  t^irtilagc-cov-ered 
trochlear  surface  or  groove  of  the  ischium  (i.e.,  the  hullowcd  portion  of  the  Utnc  Iwtwccn  liie  spine  and  llic  tuberosity)  ;  a  second  bursa, 
lone  and  narrow,  lict  l>etwecn  the  tendon  of  the  muscle  and  the  capsule  of  the  hip-joint  ;  oficn,  however,  as  in  Fifj.  59.),  these  two  bursa; 
combine  to  form  a  single  structure. — Tr. 

Fig.  590. — Dkep  External  Muscles  of  the  Right  Hip,  uisil.vyed  hy  the  Removal  of  the 
Gluteus  Maximus  and  Gluteus  Medius  Muscles:  Gluteus  Minimus  Muscle;  Pyki- 
FOKMis  Muscle.     Seen  obliquely  from  the  Right  Side  and  Behind. 

The  tendon  of  the  obturator  intemus  muscle  has  been  divided,  and  the  inner  half  has  been  turned 
inwards  oyer  the  posterior  or  gre.it  sacrosciatic  lii,'ament,  in  order  to  display  the  bursa  of  the 
obturator  internus  muscle.  The  quadratus  femoris  muscle  has  been  drawn  downwards  a  little, 
and  slightly  separated  from  tlie  Kcmellus  inferior  muscle,  in  order  to  bring  into  view  between 
them  a  portion  of  the  obturator  extemus  muscle. 


Musculi  coxae     Muscles  of  the  hip. 


342 


THE   MUSCLES   OF    THE  LOWER   EXTREMITY 


Superficial  or  posterior  layer 
of  the  lumbar  fascia 


Subcutaneous  bursa  of  the 
posterior  superior  spine 

of  the  ilium 

Bursa  subcutanea  spins 

iliacae  posterioris 

Subcutaneous  bursa  of  the 

sacrum 
Bursa  subcutanea  sacralis 


Subcutaneous  bursa  of  the  _ 
coccyx 
Bursa  subcutanea 
coccygea 

Superior  bursa  of  the  biceps 

flexor  cruris  muscle' 

Bursa  m.  bicipitis  femoris 

superior 

Semimembranosus  muscle 

Adductor  magnus  muscle  - 

Biceps  flexor  cruris  muscle 
M.  biceps  femoris 


Semitendinosus  muscle 


— Posterior  superior  spine 
of  the  ilium 

Spina  iliaca  posterior 

superior 

Gluteus  minimus  muscle 

M.  gluteus  minimus 

Pyriformis  muscle 

^I,  piriformis 

Gluteus  medius  muscle 

-''   M.  gluttieus  medius 

_  Obturator  intemus  and 
gemelli  muscles ' 

Posterior  trochanteric  Ibursa 
of  the  gluteus  medius 
muscle-  ( 1 ) 
Trochanteric  bursa  of  the 
gluteus  maximus  muscle  i 
lUirsa  tioclKHiterica  ni.  gluta;i 
niaximi 

Quadratus  femoris  muscle 

\     Gluteofemoral  bursa^ 

Bursa  gluta?o- 
femoralis 
Gluteus  maximus 
muscle 

]\I.  s'ut't^us.  maximus 


Iliotibial  band  or  ligament 

Tractus  iliotibialis 
(Maissiati) 

(0  Bursa  tr/jchanterica  m.  glutei  medii 
posterior 


'  The  superior  bursa  of  the  hiceps  flexor  cruris  muscle  is  situate  between  the  tendon  of  the  long  head  of  that  muscJe  and  the  origin 
of  the  semimembranosus  muscle. — Tr. 

=  The  posterior  trochanteric  bursa  o/t/ie  ghitevs  medius  muscle  is  a  small  bursa  situate  internal  to  the  tendon  of  that  muscle,  between 
it  and  the  insertion  of  the  tendon  of  the  pyriformis  muscle.— Tr. 

3  See  note  ^  to  p.  340. 

*  The  gluteofemoral  bursa  is  situate  between  the  fascial  insertion  of  the  gluteus  ma.\imus  muscle  and  the  upper  part  of  the  vastus 
extemus  muscle. — Tr. 

5  See  note  *  to  p.  340. 

Fig.  5gi. — Deep  External  Muscles  of  the  Right  Hip  seen  from  Behind,  showing  their 
Relation  to  the  Posterior  Femoral  or  Hamstring  Muscles  and  to  the  Adductor 
Magnus  Muscle.  Insertion  of  the  Gluteus  Maximus  into  the  Gluteal  Ridge  of 
the  Femur  and  into  the  Fascia  Lata.     Burs.«  of  the  Sacral  and  Gluteal  Regions. 

The  gemelli  muscles  have  been  left  undisturbed  in  their  close  pro.ximity  to  the  obturator  internus 

muscle. 


Musculi  coxae — Muscles  of  the  hip. 


THE  MUSCLES    OF   THE  LOWER   EXTREMITY 


343 


Outer  row  of  insertions  of  the 
longissinius  dorsi  muscle 
Slips  of  origin  of  the  multifidus 
spins  muscle 
Twelfth  dorsal  /'     Mamillary  process 
vertebra       I      Processus  mamillaris 
N'ertebra       i  Accessory  process 
thoracalis  XII.  (.Trocessus  accessorius 

Inner  row  of  insertions  of  the 
longissimus  dorsi  muscle 

Accessory  process  of  the  first  lumbar  vertebra 
I'rocessus  accessoriiis  vertebrx*  lumbalis  I. 
Intertransversalis  medialis  or  inter- 
accessorius  muscle 
M   intertransversariiis  posterior  medialis 
Origins  of  the  multifidus 
spinss  muscle 

Isolated  slip  of  the  multifidus 
spinas  muscle 

Spinous  process  of  the  third  lumbar  vertebra 
I'rocessus  spinosus  vertebrae  lumbalis  III. 


Mamillary  process  of  the  fourth  lumbar  ver- 
tebra—  l'n»:c>MiMii.iiuill.iris  vcrtctir.i;  lumbalis  IV'. 

Insertions  of  the  multifidus 
spinse  muscle 
Tendon  of  the  origin  of  t  je  lougissimus 
dorsi  muscle 


Origin  of  the  iliocostalis. 
or  sacrolumbalis  muscle' 

Crest  of  the  ilium  - 
Crista  iliaca 

Multifidus  spinas  muscle  -- 
M.  multifidus 

Origin  of  the 
longissimus  dorsi  muscle  -'- 

Dorsal  or  posterior  surface 
of  the  first  sacral  vertebra 

lacics  dirs-ili-i  \crtt:l>r.t 
^."^|.r.lli^  I. 

Posterior  superior  spine ' 
of  the  ilium 

.Spina  iliaca  pjstcrior 
superior 

Surface  of  origin  of  the  ' 
multifidus  spinse  muscle 


Eleventh  rib 
Costa  XI 

Musculus  accessorius  ad  iliocostalem  (origin) 

Middle  layer  of  the  Itimbar  fascia,  forming  the 
posterior  aponeurosis  of  the  transversalis 
abdominis  muscle-Iii;.  inmi  ocusialc 

-/Slips  of  insertion  of  the  iliocostalis 

or  sacrolimibalis  muscle 

Serratus  posticus  inferior  muscle 

.M    serratus  posterior  inferior 

Intertransversalis 
lateralis  muscle 

M    intertransvcrsarius 
posterior  lateralis 


Outer  row  of  insertions  of  the 

longissimus  dorsi  muscle 
Iliocostalis  or  sacrolumbalis  muscle 
M.  ilincustalis  liimlKinun 
. .  Inner  row  of  insertions  of  the 
longissimus  dorsi  muscle 

Intertransversalis  medialis  or  interaccessorius  muscle 

M.  intertransvcrsarius  posterior  medialis 

_ .-Costal  process  of  the  fourth  lumbar  vertebra 
I'rocessus  costarius  vertebra;  lumbalis  IV. 


Crest  of  the  ilium 
Crista  iliaca 


Surface  of  origin  of 

the  gluteus  maximus 

muscle 


Surface  of  origin  of  the  gluteus 
medius  muscle 


Gemellus  superior  muscle  ^origin)  ' 

Posterior  or  great  sacrosciatic  ligament 
Lig.  sacrotubevnsum 

Qemellus  inferior  muscle  (origin  i ' 

Common  tendon  for  the  long  head  of  the  biceps  flexor 
cruris  muscle  and  for  the  aemitendinosus  muscle 

QuadratuB  femoria  muscle  (origin) 

Fig.  592.— Attachment  of  Ml-sclf.s  to  tiik  Postk 

AM)  01    Till-;  Hir 


Surface  of  origin  of  the 
gluteus  minimus  muscle 


Proximal  portion  of  the  pyriformis 
muscle  in  the  great  sciatic  or  ilio  - 
sciatic  notch 
Anterior  inferior  spine  of  the  ilium 
Spina  iliaca  anterior  inferior 

Origin  of  the  rectus  femoris  muscle 


Tendon  of  insertion  of  the 
pyriformis  muscle 

-  Tendon  of  the  obturator 
intemus  muscle 


Tendon  of  the  obturator 
extemua  muscle 


Insertions  of  the  quadratus 
femoris  muscle 


Posterior  intertrochanteric  ridge 

or  line 

Crista  intertrochanterica 


RIOK    SURFACli   OF  THE    LtMIlAK    VERTEBRAE 

-Bone. 


Musculi  coxae— Muscles  of  the  hip. 


344 


THE   MUSCLES   OF   THE   LOWER   EXTREMITY 


Twelfth  rib 


Quadratus  lumborum  muscle 


Psoas  magnus  muscle 

M.  psoas  major 
Psoas  parvus  muscle  (var  ) 

M.  psoas  minor  (var.) 

Iliacus  muscle 

M.  iliacus 


Anterior  superior  spine 

of  tlie  ilium 

Spina  iliaca  anterior 

superior 


Iliac  fascia 

Fascia  iliopectinea' 


Transversalis  fascia 

Fascia  transversalis 


Vascular  compartment  - 

Lacuna  \'asorum 
Poupart's  ligament  (superficial 
femoral  arch) 
Lig.  inguinale  (Pouparti) 


First  lumbar  vertebra 
Vertebra  lumbalis  I. 


Sacral  promontory 

omontorium 


Pyriformis  muscle 

~M.  piriformis 
,-Sacrococcygeus  anticus  or 
''    cur vator  coccygis  muscle 

M.  sacrocuccygeu^  anleri>;r 

Obturator  internus  muscle 
Coccygeus  or  levator 

coccygis  muscle 
Iliopectineal  eminence 
Eminentia  iliopectinea 
Pubic  ligament  of  Astley  Cooper, 
or  Cooper's  ligamenf- 
Lig.  pubicum  (Cooperi) 

Pubic  symphysis 
Symphysis  ossiura  pubis 


Spme  of  the  pubis 
I         Tulierculum  pubicum 
1  Gimbemat's  ligament 
I,ig.  lacunarc  (Gimbcrnati) 
Internal  or  deep  abdominal  ring' 
Annuhis  inguinalis  abdominalis 


See  note  >  to  p.  390. 


3  See  note  2  to  p.  390. 


i  Or  hitet-nal  itig-uinal  aperture. 


Fig.  593. — Internal  Muscles  of  the  Region  of  the  Hip,  seen  somewhat  obliquely  from 
Before:  Iliopsoas  Muscle,  consisting  of  Two  Parts — the  Iliacus  Muscle  and  the 
Psoas  Magnus  Muscle;  Psoas  Parvus  Muscle,  the  Tendon  of  which  becomes 
incorporated  with  the  Iliac  Fascia.  Obturator  Internus  Muscle.  Pyriformis  and 
Quadratus  Lumborum  Muscles.  Lacuna  Vasorum,  or  Vascular  Compartment^of  the 
Space  between  Poupart's  Ligament  (Superficial  Femoral  Arch)  and 
Iliopubic  Margin  of  the  Hip-Bone.     Right  Side. 


THE  Concave 


Musculi  coxae — Muscles  of  the  hip. 


THE  MUSCLES  OF   THE   LOWER   EXTREMITY 


345 


Psoas  magnus  muscle  (slips  of  origin  from  the  bodies 
of  the  vertebrae)  —  M   psoas  major  ^ 

Quadratus  lumborum  muscle  (insertion 
into  the  twelfth  rib) 

Twelfth  rib    . 
Cosla  Xll, 
Psoas  magnus  muscle  (slips  of  origin 
from  the  costal  processes) 
M.  psoas  major 
Quadratus  lumborum  muscle  (slips  of 
origin  from  the  costal  processes; 

Slips  of  origin  of  the  internal 

oblique  muscle  of  the 

abdomen 

Costal  process 
Processus  costarius 

Middle  layer  of  the  lumbar  fascia,  forming 

the  posterior  aponeurosis  of 

the  transversalis  abdomiols  muscle 

Li^.  lumijocosiale 
Psoas  magnus  muscle  (slips  of  origin 
from  the  costal  processes) 
M-  psoas  major 
Quadratus  lumborum  muscle  (insertion 
into  the  crest  of  the  ilium) 


Iliolumbar  ligament  - 

Lig.  iliohimbale 

Transversalis  abdominis  muscle  - 

M.  trans\ersus  alxluminis 

Internal  oblique  muscle  of  the 
abdomen 

Mobliquus  intern  us  abdominis 

External  oblique  muscle  of  the 
abdomen 

M.  obliquusu.\turnusal)dominis 
Surface  of  origin  of  the' 
iliacus  muscle 

Surface  of  origin  of  the  gluteus 
medius  muscle 


Surface  of  origin  of  the  gluteus 
minimus  muscle 


Margin  of  the  acetabulum 

Surface  of  origin  of  the  iliopsoas  muscle 
from  the  capsule  of  the  hip-joint 

Tendon  of  insertion  of  the  ^ 
pjrrifonnis  muscle 

Insertion  of  the  gluteus 

medius  muscle 

Great  trochanter  '' 
Trochanter  major 

Insertion  of  the  gluteus  ' 
minimus  muscle 


Partial  insertion  of  the  gluteus 

maximus  muscle  into 
the  gluteal  ridge  of  the  femur 


Origin  in  layers  of  the  vastus, 
extemus  muscle 

■  Sec  note  '  to  p.  286. 


Twelfth  dorsal  vertebra 
\'crtebratli(>racalis  Xll. 


Intermediate  cms  of  the  vertebral 
portion  of  the  diaphragm' 

Crus  intermedium  partis  lumbalis 

diaphragmatis 

Portion  of  the  intemsd  arched 

ligament 

'Internal  crus  of  the  vertebral  portion 
of  the  diaphragm' 
•Crus  mediale  partis  lumbalis 
diaphragmatis 
Intervertebral  foramen 
Foramen  intervertebrale 


Psoas  magnus  muscle  (slips  of  origin 

from  the  bodies  of  the  vertebrae 

and  from  the  intervertebral  discs) 

M.  psoas  major 


Sacral  promontory 
rromontorium 


Anterior  superior  spine  of  the  ilium 

Spina  iliaca  anterior  superior 
Tensor  vaginae  femoris  or  tensor  fasciae 
femoris  muscle 
M.  tensor  fascia:  lata; 

Sartorius  muscle  (origin) 
.  Poupart's  ligament  (superficial 
femoral  arch) 
Lig.  inguinale  (Poiiparti) 
-Rectus  femoris  muscle  (origin) 

Pubic  portion  of  the  iliopectineal 

line 

Pecten  ossis  pubis 

Pectineus  muscle  (origin) 

..  Spine  of  the  pubis 

Tuberciilum  pubiciim 

-  Adductor  longus  muscle 
(origin) 

Adductor  brevis  muscle  (origin) 
Oracilis  muscle  (origin) 

N  Obturator  extemus  muscle  (origin) 
Adductor  minimus  muscle  (origin)-' 

Obturator  membrane  or  ligament 
Membrana  obturatoria 


■Adductor  magnus  muscle  (origin)'^ 
Quadratus  femoris  muscle  (origin) 


^  Adductor  Mimmut  Muscte.  -This  is  by  Rnglish  anatomi^f^  tt^tmlly  rr::nrdcd  a.-*  the  anlerior  and  sv^frfflr  p<»r1t"n 
.  ,  .     .     .      -   .  ..         ....  J  jjj^^i^^i  j^jjj  iij^  femur  fi 


.f  th<»  a<l<luctor 

•         •       f the 
I  lie 


magnu«  muscl-,  arisins  from  the  V-xly  of  the  puMs  and  (lie 

in^erlion  of  ihc  <iuadratus  femoris  inii^clc  10  llie  W[»prr  en.!  ,  .tnd  »omclime\  for  a  short 

adducftrr  nitt/^HUs  mwit// of  Cuiutiirnlal  writers,  rci-arHctl                                        In  as  the /t»j/mVr /!«</ r«  ''^^ 

magnus  inuv:le,  is  much  !.ir.;rr.  ansiii};  from  the  iTifcnor  i.uiin.    .t  ttir  1  .  hmrii  internal  to  the  forcHoing,  aim  ii..iii  iii'   '  'lie 

iv:hium  by  a  slroiiK  teniloii  which  descettds  mi  the  hituler  surface  of  the  muscle  for  a  third  of  it.s  length  ;  this  p<irtioii  i* 

inserted  into  the  whole  length  of  the  lines  as{»era  !>elow  the  preceding  |K<rlion  and  into  the  upper  part  of  the  internal  siij  'ic, 

and  by  a  tendon  which  pa.sscs  l^low  the  opening  for  the  femoral  %'c&s«l^  to  the  adductor  tubercle  on  the  internal  condyle  oi  iiic  icniiir.  —  in. 

Fig.  594.— .Vtt.\chment  of  Mu.scles  to  tuf.  Anterior  Surface  of  the  Lumb.xr  Vertebr.*  and  ok  the  Hip- Bone 


Musculi  coxae— Muscles  of  the  hip. 


44 


346 


THE  MUSCLES   OF   THE  LOWER   EXTREMITY 


Promontory  of  the  sacrum 
Promontorium 


Psoas  magnus  muscle 

M.  psoas  major 


Iliacus  muscle 

*Linea  arcuata'  .. 

Iliac  fascia    

Fascia  iliaca 
Pouparts  ligament  (superficial 
femoral  archxo 
Obturator  canal 
Canalis  obturatorius 
White  line  of  the  pelvic  fascia 
Arcus  tendineus  m.  levatoris  am 
Pubic  symphysis 
Symphysis  ossium 
pubis 

Inferior  or  descending  ramus 
of  the  pubis 

Ramus  inferior  ossis  pubis 
Adductor  longus  muscle  — 

Gracilis  muscle 


Adductor  magnus  muscle 


(i)  Lig.  inguinale  (Poupartf 


_  Sacro-iliac  articulation 

Articulatio  sacro-iliaca 

Pyriformis  muscle 
M.  piriformis 
-.--    Fifth  sacral  vertebra  (2) 

B' Sacrococcygeus  anticus  or 
.__.- — "  curvator  coccygis  muscle  (3) 

First  coccygeal  vertebra 
Vertebra  coccygea  I. 
Anterior  or  small  sacrosciatic 
ligament 
Lig.  sacrospinosum 
Obturator  fascia 
Fascia  obturatoria 
—  Posterior  or  great  sacrosciatic 
ligament 
Lig.  sacrotuberosum 

._  -  Falciform  process 

Processus  falciformis 
Tuberosity  of  the  ischium 

Tuber  ischiadicum 

Semitendinosus  muscle 


(2)  Vertebra  sacralis  V. 

(3)  M.  sacrococcygeus  anterior 


^  The  *lin£a  arcuata  marks  the  attachment  of  the  iliac  fascia  along  the  brim  of  the  pelvis  to  the  iliopectineal  line,  where  it  is  insepar- 
ably blended  with  the  obturator  fascia. — Tr. 

Fig.  595. — Internal  Muscles  of  the  Region  of  the  Hip,  seen  from  the  Inner  Side,  with 
THE  Obtur.-^tor  Fascia  and  a  Portion  of  the  Iliac  Fascia:  Pyriformis  Muscle;  the 
Two  Parts  of  the  Iliopsoas  Muscle,  viz..  Psoas  Magnus  and  Iliacus  Muscles. 
Proximal  Extremities  of  the  Internal  Femoral  or  Adductor  Muscles,  showing 
their  Mutual  Rel.^tions.     White  Line  of  the  Pelvic  Fascia.     Right  Side. 


Musculi  coxae— Muscles  of  the  hip. 


THE  MUSCLES    OF   THE   LOWER    EXTREMITY 


347 


Psoas  magnus  muscle 
M.  psoas  major 


lUacus  muscle  ■ 


Obturator  canal        ( 
Canalis  obturatorius\ 


Iliopsoas  muscle 


Small  trochanter 

Trocliantcr  minor 

Bursa  of  the  pectineus  muscle 
Bursa  musculi  pectinci 


y  y\  Promontory  of  the  sacrum 

■it  \  I'romoiuorium 


Sacro-iliac  articulation 
Articulatio  sacro-iliaca 

Pyriformis  muscle 

M.  piriformis 


Coccygeus  or  levator 
coccygis  muscle 


Obturator  intemus  muscle 


"^Posterior  or  great  sacrosciatic 

ligament 

Lig.  sacrotuberosum 


Pectineus  muscle 


'  Bursa  of  the  Pectineus  Muscle. — This  bursa  is  siiuatc  anteriorly  to  the  tendon  of  the  pectineus  muscle  close  to  its  insertion,  between 
the  tendon  and  the  femur. — Tk. 

Fig.  596. — The  Intkunal  Muscles  of  the  Region  of  the  Hip,  seen  from  the  Inner  Side, 
THE  Obturator  Fascia  having  been  removed,  and  the  Iliopsoas  Muscle  filly 
exposed  up  to  its  Insertion  into  the  Small  Trochanter:  Pyriformis  and  Obturator 
Internus  Muscles.     Bursa  of  the  Pectineus  Muscle. 


Musculi  coxae  — Muscles  of  the  hip. 


44—2 


348 


THE   MUSCLES   OF   THE   LOWER   EXTREMITY 


Pyriformis  muscle  (divided  and  ^^ 
turned  outwards) 

M.  piriformis 


Bursa  of  the  pyriformis  muscle' 

Bursa  musculi  piriformis 

Gluteus  minimus  muscle 
M.  glutaeus  minimus 

Trochanteric  bursa  of  the 
gluteus  minimus  muscle= 

Bursa  trochanterica  m.  gluta;i 

minimi 

Anterior  trochanteric  bursa 
of  the  gluteus  medius  muscle  ^ 

Bursa  troch.inlcrica  ill.  glutxi 
medii  antcriur 

Gluteus  medius  muscle 

(divided  and 

turned  outwards) 

M.  glutaeus  medius 


Vastus  intemus  muscle 

M.  vastus  medialib 


Rectus  femoris  muscle  (divided 
and  turned  upwards) 


Bursa  of  the  rectus  femoris  muscle'' 

L  ursa  musculi  recti  femoris 


Iliopectineal  bursa^ 
Bursa  iliopectinea 


Iliopsoas  muscle  (divided 

and  turned  downwards 

and  inwards) 

Bursa  of  the  iliopsoas 
tendon'' 

Bursa  iliaca  subtendinea 


—  Mass  of  adductor  muscles 


^  The  bursa  o/ the  pyyi/ormis  mtiscU  is  situate  beneath  the  tendon  of  that  muscle  close  to  its  insertion. — Tr. 

-  The  trochanteric  bursa  of  the  gluteus  minimus  muscle  is  situate  beneath  the  tendon  of  that  muscle  close  to  its  insertion. — Tr. 

3  The  anterior  trochanter  ic  but sa  of  the  gluteus  medius  muscle  is  .situate  beneath  the  anterior  part  of  the  tendon  of  that  muscle  and 
the  front  of  the  outer  surface  of  the  great  trochanter. — Tr. 

■*  The  bursa  of  the  rectus  femoris  muscle  is  situate  between  the  anterior  tendinous  head  of  the  muscle  and  the  lower  part  of  the 
anterior  inferior  spine  of  the  ilium. — Tr. 

^  I'he  iliopectineal  bursa  is  situate  beneath  tbe  iliopsoas  muscle  as  it  passes  over  the  iliopectineal  eminence  and  the  capsular  ligament 
of  the  hip-joint.     It  frequently  communicates  with  the  joint. — Tr. 

6  Xhe  bursa  of  the  iliopsoas  tendon  is  situate  between  the  tendon  of  the  iliopsoas  muscle  and  the  femur  immediately  above  its 
insertion. — Tr. 

Fig,  597. — The  Burs^  situate   beneath  the  Tendons  of  the  Muscles  of  the  Hip  adjacent 
TO  their  Insertions.     Iliopectineal  Bursa,     Right  Side,     Seen  from  Before, 

The  distal  extremities  of  the  muscles  have  been  drawn  away  from  the  bone  to  e.\pose  the  bursae,  which 

have  been  opened. 


Musculi  coxae — Muscles  of  the  hip. 


THE  MUSCLES   OF  THE  LOWER  EXTREMITY 


349 


Anterior  superior  spine 

of  the  ilium 

Spina  iliaca  anterior 

superior 

Aponeurosis  of  the  external 

oblique  muscle  of  the  abdomen 

Aponeurosis  m.  obliqui  externi 

abdominis 

Poupart's  ligament  superficial 

femoral  arch  i 

I. is;,  intjuinale  (I'ouparti) 

Superiorcornu'— Cornu  superius 

Vascular  compartment 

Lacuna  wisorum 

Falciform  border 
^larKO  falcitormis 
Saphenous  opening  (pubic  portion 

of  the  fascia  latax  II 
Pectineal  fascia,  or  pubic  portion 
of  the  fascia  lata(.) 

Inferior  cornu 
Cornu  inferius 


Deep  fascia  of  the  thigh,  or  fascia  ^ 
lata   superficial  layer)-' 


Superficial  fascia 

Fascia  superficialis 

External  or  superficial 
abdominal  ring^ 

.\nnulus  ingninalis  subcutaneus 

Upper  or  internal  pillar  (3) 
•   Lower  or  external  pillar  U) 
-Gimbemat's  ligament 
Lig.  lacunare  (Gimbernati) 

'  Spine  of  the  pubis 

Tuberculum  pubicum 

Supensory  ligament  of  the  penis 

Lif,'.  suspensoriura  penis 


(3)  Crus  superius 

(4)  Cms  inferius 


(1)  Fossa  ov.ilis(Lamina  profund.-i 
(z)  Fascia  peclinea 


»  The  suicrior  cornu  of  the  saphenous  opening  passes  completely  to  the  inner  side  of  the  femoral  sheath  to  be  attached  to  Gimbemat's 
ligament.     This  inner  part  of  the  superior  cornu  is  termed  the  femorat  iisaiiient  or  Hey's  ligament. — Tr. 

2_  The  upper  part  of  this  portion  of  the  fascia  lata,  lying  to  the  outer  side  of  the  saphenous  opening,  is  termed  the  iliac  portion  0/  the 
Xascia  lata. — Tr. 

■^  Or  external  inguinal  aperture. 

Fig.  598. — Deep  Fascia  of  the  Thigh  or  Fascia  Lata  of  the  Right  Side,  seen  from  Before  ; 
ITS  Connexion  with  the  Aponeurosis  of  the  External  Oblique  Muscle  of  the  Ahdomen 
through  its  Attachment  to  Poupart's  Ligament  (Superficial  Femoral  Arch).  The 
External  or   Superficial    Aboominal    Ring    (the   External    Inguinal    Aperture),   lying 

IMMEni.\TELY     ABOVE     THE     InNER     EXTREMITY     OF     PoUPART'S     LiGAMENT,     WHICH     FORMS     THE 

Lower  or  External  Pillar  of  the  Ring.    The  Saphenous  Opening  (Fossa  Ovalis)  which 

FORMS    THE     FeMORAL    ApERTURE     OF    THE    FeMORAL   OR   CrURAL    CaNAL.      ThE    PUBIC    PORTION 

of  the  Fascia  Lata,  or  Pectineal   Fascia,  attached  above  to  the    Iliopectineal   Line, 
forms    the    floor    of    the    saphenous    opening,   and,    passing    outwards,    dips    deeply 

BENE.VTH     THE     FALCIFORM     BoRDER    OF    THE    IlIAC    PORTION    OF    THE    FaSCI.X     LaTA    AND     BEHIND 

THE  Femoral  Vessels  to  form  the  Back  of  the  Fe.moral  or  Crural  She.\th,  by  Means 
OF  WHICH  IT  is  continued  into  the  Iliac  Fascia. 

The  vessels  that  descend  through  the  vascular  romparlinent  or  l.icuna  vasorum  beneath  Poupart's 
ligament  (femoral  artery  and  femoral  vein)  have  been  removed. 


Musculi  coxae  et  femoris — Muscles  of  the  hip  and  thigh. 


550 


THE   MUSCLES   OF   THE   LOWER  EXTREMITY 


Iliacus  muscle 

Anterior  superior  spine  of  the  ilium 
Spina  iliaca  anterior  superior 


Tensor  vaginae  femoris  or 

tensor  fasciae  femoris  muscle 

M.  tensor  fascise  lata; 


Sartorius  muscle 


Rectus  femoris  muscle 


Vastus  internus  muscle     /, 
M.  vastus  medialis 


Deep  fascia  of  the  thigh,  or  fascia  lata 

Prepatellar  subcutaneous  bursa 

Bursa  praepatellaris  subcutanea 


Infrapatellar  subcutaneous  bursa 

Bursa  infrapatellaris  subcutanea  V\ 


Psoas  magnus  muscle 

M    psoas  major 


Poupart's  ligament  (superficial  femoral  arch) 

Lig   inguinale  (Pouparti) 


*Iliopectineal  fossa 

^Tobsa  iliopectinea 


Pectmeus  muscle 

Adductor  longus  muscle 
^       S     Gracilis  muscle 


Internal  intermuscular  septum 

Septum  intermusculare  mediale 


iG.  599.— Anterior  and  Internal  Muscles  of  the  Right  Thigh,  as  seen  from  Before  with 
THE  Limb  rotated  outwards:  Sartorius  Muscle;  Portions  of  the  Quadriceps  Extensor 
Cruris  Muscle,  of  the  Internal  Femoral  or  Adductor  Muscles,  and  of  the  Iliopsoas 
Muscle.  '  Iliopectineal  Fossa.  The  Triangular  Area,  the  Base  of  which  is  formed 
BY   Poupart's    Ligament,   the    Sides   by   the   Sartorius   and  Adductor  Longus  Muscles, 

RESPECTIVELY,     AND     THE     FlOOR     BY     THE      ILIOPSOAS     AND     PeCTINEUS      MUSCLES,    IS     KNOWN     AS 

Scarpa's  Triangle  (Fossa  Scarp^e   Major,  Trigonum  Femorale).     Prepatellar  and  Infra- 
patellar Subcutaneous  Burs^. 

In  the  region  of  the  knee  the  fascia  lata  has  not  been  removed. 


Musculi  femoris — Muscles  of  the  thigh. 


THE   MUSCLES   OF   THE   LOWER   EXTREMITY 


351 


Anterior  superior  spine  of  the_ 

ilium 
Spina  iliaca  anterior  superior        //^ 


I 


Iliopsoas  muscle 
Sartorius  muscle 


Tensor  vaginse  femoris  or  tensor 
fasciae  femoris  muscle 
M.  tensor  fascia:  lata; 


# 


V 


_Poupart's  ligament  superficial 
femoral  arch) 
Lig   inguinale  (I'ouparti) 

Pubic  symphysis 

Symphysis  ossium  pubis 

Inferior  or  descending  ramus  of 
the  pubis 
\        Ramus  inferior  ossis  pubis 
Pectineus  muscle 

Adductor  magnus  muscle 
Adductor  brevis  muscle 
Gracilis  muscle 


Rectus  femoris  muscle 


Vastus  intemus  muscle  - 
M.  vastus  medialis 


Adductor  longus  muscle 

Semimembranosus  muscle 
Semitendinosus  muscle 


.'Entrance  to  the  lower  part  of 

Hunter's  canal 
Canalis  adductorius  (Hunteri) 


Internal  intermuscular  septum 
Septum  intermusculare  mediale 


Semimembranosus  muscle 


Sartorius  muscle 


Aponeurotic  expansion  of  the 
tendon  of  the  gracilis  muscle 
Aponeurotic  expansion  of  the  tendon 
of  insertion  of  the  eartorius  muscle 
I'es  anseriiuis' 


V4 


'  PcsytmenHus. — The  tendon  uf  insertion  of  the  sartorius  muscle  sends  cff  fromits  upper  borderanaponeuroticcxpansion  to  join  that 
of  the  comtnon  extensor  over  the  front  of  the  capsule  of  tlic  I<nee-joint,  and  from  its  lower  border  another  to  the  deep  fascia  of  llie  lej;  ; 
immediately  below  and  behind  this  latter  is  a  similar  aponeurotic  expansion  from  the  ter.don  of  insertion  f>f  the  gracilis  mu^cle  to  the  deep 
fascia  of  the  lep.  From  the  resemblance  of  the  aponeurotic  expansions  of  the  sartorius  tendon  to  the  footof  a  Roose,  it  is  called  by  the 
author  /fj  ttmcrinus,  but  it  is  to  Ik:  noted  that  this  name  is  Kivcn  by  Knglish  anatomists  to  an  entirely  different  structure— to  wit,  the 
plexus  formed  in  the  std>stance  of  the  parotid  t;land  and  on  the  side  of  the  face  by  the  fieely  communicating  twigs  of  the  letnporofacial 
and  cervicofacial  branches  of  the  facial  nerve,  known  also  as  the  "  parotid  plexus"  (see  l''ig.  1314,  p.  871,  sect.  vi.  of  this  work).— Th. 

p-IG.  600.— AXTKRIOR  AND   InTKKNAI,   MUSCI.F.S  OF  TIIF.    RiC.HT   THir.H,    AS    SEEN    FROM     BfFORIC    WITH    THE    LiMll 
ROTATED    OUTWARDS,    THE    SAKTOKIUS     MUSCI.E    IIAVINC.     liEEN     REMOVED.        OF    THE    OUAliRICEPS    KXTENSOR 

Cruris  Muscle,  we  see  the  Long  Head,  the  Rectus  Femoris  Mu.sci.e,  and  the  Inner  Head,  the 
Vastus  Internus  Muscle:  of  the  Internal  Femoral  or  Adductor  -Muscles,  we  see  the  Gracilis, 
Adduciok  I.onous,  Adduc  tor  Brevis,  and  1'eciineus  Muscles.  liEiiiND  the  Gracilis  Muscles  we  see 
Portions  of  the  Posterior  Femoral  or  IIamsirino  Muscles:  Skmimemhranosus  Muscle  and  Semi- 
tendinosus Muscle.  Henfaih  the  Sartorius  Muscle  and  hetween  the  N'astus  Internus  Muscle, 
ON  THE  Ouri  R  Side,  and  the  Adductor  Lonc.us  (ahove)  and  the  Adductor  Mac.nus  (bel-iw),  on  ihe 
Inner  Side,  lies  IIunier's  Canal  (Canalis  Adductorius  Hunteri),  the  Fascial  Roof  of  which  has 
been  removed  excei'T  for  a  Short  Space  at  the  Lower  End  of  the  Canal. 


Musculi  femoris — Muscles  of  the  thigh. 


352 


THE  MUSCLES  OF  THE  LOWER   EXTREMITY 


Surface  of  origin  of  the  gluteus 
medius  muscle 

Surface  of  origin  of  the  gluteus 
minimus  muscle 

Rectus  femoris  muscle  - 

(proximal  extremity) 

Tendon  of  the  gluteus  medius  muscle  -, 

Tendon  of  the  gluteus  minimus 
muscle 

Vastus  intemus  muscle 

M.  vastus  medialis 

Crureus  muscle 

M.  vastus 

intermedius 

Vastus  extemus  muscle  v^^i»»i 

M.  vastus  lateralis 


Quadriceps  extensor  crtiris  muscle 


Rectus  femoris  muscle 
(distal  extremity) 


Biceps  flexor  cruris  muscle 

M.  biceps  femoris 

Patella 


Crest  of  the  ilium 
Crista  iliaca 

Anterior  superior  spine  of 

the  ilitim 
Spina  iliaca  anterior  superior 

Iliopsoas  muscle 

M.  iliopsoas 

Poupart's  ligament  'superficial 

femoral  arch) 

Lig.  inguinale  (Pouparti) 

Pubic  symphysis 

Symphysis  ossium  pubis 

Pectineus  muscle 
Adductor  brevis  muscle 


Adductor  longus  muscle 


Adductor  magnus  muscle 


Fig.  6oi. — Anterior  and  Internal  Muscles  of  the  Right  Thigh,  with  the  Limb  in  the 
Normal  Position,  the  Sartorius,  Gracilis,  and  Rectus  Femoris  Muscles  having  been 
Removed.  Seen  from  Before.  Vastus  Externus,  Crureus,  and  Vastus  Internus 
Muscles,  the  Outer,  Middle,  and  Inner  Heads  of  the  Quadriceps  E.xtensor  Cruris 
Muscles;  Adductor  Longus  and  Adductor  Brevis  Muscles,  and  the  Inner  Portion 
OF  the  Adductor  Magnus  Muscle;  Pectineus  Muscle. 


Musculi  femoris — Muscles  of  the  thigh. 


THE   MUSCLES   OF   THE  LOWER   EXTREMITY 


353 


Crest  of  the  ilium 

Crista  iliaca 
Tensor  vaginae  femoris  or  tensor  fasciae  femoris 
muscle  (origin)     M.  tensor  fasci;i;  latx 

Gluteus  minimus  muscle 
M    f;lutaiis  nuiuimis 
Rectus  femoris  muscle  (tendon  of  origin) 
M.  rectus  femoris 

Capsular  ligament  of  the  hip-joint 
Ciipsiila  articiilaris 
Gluteus  medius  muscle  (insertion) 
M.  glutacus  medius 

Great  trochanter 
Trochanter  major 


Upper  limit  of  the  origin  of  the 
vastus  extemus  muscle 


Quadriceps 

extensor  cruris 

muscle. 

M.  quadriceps 
femoris 


Upper  limit  of  the  origin  of  the 
crureus  muscle 


Superficial  layers  of  the  vastus 
extemus  muscle 


Deep  layers  of  the  vastus 
extemus  muscle 


Outer  surface  of  the  femur 

Facies  lateralis  femoris 

(  Aponeurosis  of  insertion  of  the 
vastus  extemus  muscle 
Quadriceps       Bundles  of  muscular  fibres  passing 
extensor  cruris  ,     ^^j^  ^j^g  crm-eus  to  the  vastus 
muscle        "V         extemus  muscle  (divided) 


M.  quadriceps 
femoris 


Tendonof  insertionof  the  rectus 
femoris  muscle 


Fascia  lata  (iliotibial  band  or  ligament) - 
Fascia  lata  (tractus  iliotibialis) 


Body  of  the  fifth  liunbar  vertebra 

''    Corpus  vertebrx  lumbalis  V. 
.---Anterior  superior  spine  of  the  ilium 

Spina  iliaca  anterior  superior 

--Sartorius  muscle  (origin) 

Iliopspas  muscle 

Pubic  ligament  of  Astley  Cooper, 
or  Cooper's  ligament' 

/         Lig.  pubicum  (Cooperi) 
Pectineus  muscle  (origin) 

Spine  of  the  pubis 
Tuberciilum  pubicum 
Obturator  canal 
Canalis  obturatorius 
Obturator  extemus  muscle 

-Adductor  brevis  muscle 
Adductor  longus  muscle 


Crureus  muscle 

M.  vastus  iiitermedius 
Vastus  intemus  muscle 
M.  vastus  medialis 


Head  of  the  fibula  -  / 
Capitulum  fibulx   / 


Common  tendon  for  the  crureus  and 
vastus  intemus  muscles 


Vastus  intemus  muscle 
M,  vastus  medialis 


-Bundles  of  muscular  fibres  passing 
from  the  vastus  intemus  muscle  to 
the  tendon  of  the  rectus  femoris 
muscle  (which  has  been  divided)  / 

Patella 


Patellar  ligament,  or  infrapatellar  tendon 

1-ig.  patell:e 

Tubercle  of  the  tibia — Tuberositas  tibia; 


Quadriceps  extensor 

cruris  muscle 

M.  quadriceps 

femoris 


Fig.    602. — STRATlFICATinN    OF   THE    VASTUS    EXTEKNUS    MUSCLE,    AS    SEEN    AFTER   THE    REMOVAL 

OF  THE  Rectus  Femoris  Muscle,  the  Layers  of  the  Vastus  Externus  Muscle  having 

BEEN     WELL     SEPARATED     FROM    THE     FeMUR.      OuTER     LlMlT    OF    ORIGIN    OF    THE     CrUREUS 

(Vastus  Intermedius)  Muscle.     Stratification  of  the  Tendons  (Aponeuroses)  of  the 
Vastus  Externus,  Crureus,  and  Rectus  Femoris  Muscles  above  the  Knee-Joint. 

The  thigh,  which  has  been  rotated  inwards,  is  seen  from  before.     The  bundles  of  the  vastus  externus 
muscle  that  arise  from  the  fascia  lata  arc  shown  in  Fig.  616. 


Musculi  femoris — Muscles  of  the  thigh. 


45 


354 


THE   MUSCLES   OF   THE   LOWER  EXTREMITY 


Capsular  ligament  of  the  hip-joint';— 

Capsula  articiilaris 


Upper  limit  of  the  origin  of— 
the  crureus  muscle 


Crureus  muscle 

M.  i-astus  intermedium 


Vastus  intemus  muscle  (divided  - 
and  turned  forwards) 


Common  tendon  for  the  vastus  intemus 
and  crureus  muscles 


Patella 


Adipose  tissue  of  the  internal  alar  - 
ligament  (plica  alaris  medialis) 

Patella  ligament,  or  infrapatellar  tendon 
Lig.  patellse 

Tendon  of  the  sartorius  muscle- 


Tubercle  of  the  tibia  ■ 
Tuberositas  tibiae 

Deep  fascia  of  the  leg 

Fascia  cruris 


-Head  of  the  femur 

Caput  femoris 


^'Tendon  of  Insertion  of  the  iliopsoas  muscle 


Small  trochanter 
Trochanter  minor 


^Insertion  by  muscular  fibres  of 
the  iliopsoas  muscle 

Upper  limit  of  the  origin  of  the 
vastus  intemus  muscle 


—Vastus  intemus  muscle  (line  of  origin  from 
the  inner  lip  of  the  linea  aspera) 


Inner  surface  of  the  femur 
Facies  medialis  femoris 


Fasciculus  of  the  subcrtireus  muscle 

--'Fasciculus  m.  articulaiis  genu 


Tendon  of  insertion  of  the  adductor 

magnus  muscle  with  the  internal 

intermuscular  septum 

Capsule  of  the  knee-joint 
Capsnla  articularis  genu 

v., 

.^Insertion  and  aponeurotic  expansion 
of  the  semimembranosus  muscle 

Tendon  of  the  gracilis  muscle 

Tendon  of  the  semitendinosus  muscle 

.  Internal  surface  of  the  tibia 
Faciis  medialis  tibia; 

-Popliteus  muscle 
,  Soleus  muscle 


Fig.  603. — Inner  Limit  of  the  Origin  of  the  Crureus  (Vastus  Intermedius)  Muscle,  and 
THE  Blending  of  the  Fasciculi  of  that  Muscle  with  those  of  the  Vastus  Internus 
(Vastus  Medialis)  Muscle  in  their  Insertion  into  the  Deep  Aponeurosis  of  the 
Quadriceps  Extensor  Cruris  Muscle.     Right  Thigh,  seen  from  Within. 

The  vastus  intenuis  muscle  has  been  divided  longitudinally  throughout  its  entire  length,  and  has  been 

turned  forwards. 


Musculi  femoris— Muscles  of  the  thigh. 


THE  MUSCLES   OF  THE  LOWER  EXTREMITY 


355 


Quadriceps  extensor  cruris 

muscle 

M.  cjuadriceps  femoris 


Subtendinous  prepatellar- 
bursa 
Bursa  pra-patellaiis 
subtendinea 


Subfascial  prepatellar  bursa' 

Bursa  prx'patellaris 

subfascialis 


Patellar  ligament,  or. 

infrapatellar  tendon 

Lig.  patellae 


Subcutaneous  bursa  of  the 

tubercle  of  the  tibia 

Bursa  subcutanea 

luberositatis  tibiae 


Deep  fascia  of  the  thigh, 
or  fascia  lata 


Sartorius  muscle 


Bursa  propria  of  the  sartorius 

muscle' 
Bursa  musculi  sartorii  propria 


_  Deep  fascia  of  the  leg 
Fascia  cruris 


■  The  fiursa  propria  of  the  sartorius  muscle  is  situate  between  the  sartorius  muscle  and  the  upper  part  of  the  capsule  of  the  knee-joint 
at  the  point  where  the  muscle  becomes  tendinous.  It  is  to  be  distinguished  (Vom  a  more  distally  situate  bursa  beneath  the  aponeurotic 
expansion  of  the  tendon  of  the  sartorius,  cnllcd  by  the  author  bursa  anscrina.     See  note  »  to  p.  362.— Tb. 

Fig.  604. — Demonstration  of  Certain  Burs.e  in  thk  Anterior  Region  of  the  Knee. 
Bursa  Propria  of  the  Sartorius  Muscle.  Subcutaneous  Bursa  of  the  Tubercle  of 
THE  Tir.iA.     Region  of  the  Right  Knee,  seen  obliouely  from  Before  and 'Within. 

The  subfascial  prepatellar  Dursa  wai  opincii  by  a  longitudinal  incision  lliiouj;))  the  fascia  lata  over  the 
front  of  the  patella,  and  the  subtemlinous  prcpatellir  bursa  was  opened  by  a  longitudinal  incision 
through  the  common  tcntlon  of  the  quadriceps  extensor  cruris  muscle  (suprapatellar  tendon) 
immediately  above  the  patella. 


Musculi  femoris  — Muscles  of  the  thigh. 


45— 2 


356 


THE  MUSCLES   OF   THE  LOWER   EXTREMITY 


Iliopsoas  muscle 

Rectus  femoris  muscle 

Iliopectineal  bursa' 
Bursa  iliopectinea 


Iliopsoas  muscle 


Pectineus  muscle- 


Crureus  muscle  — 


Vastus  extemus  muscle 


Rectus  femoris  muscle 


Patellar  ligament,  or 
infrapatellar  tendon 

Lig.  patellae 


I  See  note  5  to  p.  348. 


Pectineus  muscle 

Gracilis  muscle 

-  Obturator  extemus  muscle 


Adductor  brevis  muscle 


Adductor  longus  muscle 
Adductor  magnus  muscle 


Opening  in  the  adductor  magnus  muscle  through 
which  the  femoral  vessels  pass  into  the  popliteal 
space,  forming  the  inferior  orifice  of  Hunter's  canal 

Hiatus  adductorius 

-  Internal  intermuscular  septum 
Septum  intermusculare  mediale 

Vastus  intemus  muscle 
M .  vastus  medialis 


Bursa  of  the  aponeurotic 

_  expansion  of  the  sartorius  muscle- 

Bursa  anserina 


-  See  note  '  to  p.  362. 


Fig.  605. — Internal  Femoral  or  Adductor  Muscles,  displayed  by  the  Removal  of  the 
Sartorius,  Gracilis,  Pectineus,  Rectus  Femoris,  and  Vastus  Internus  Muscles,  the 
Limb  being  rotated  outwards.  Right  Thigh,  seen  fro.m  Before.  Adductor  Brevis 
and  Adductor  Longus  Muscles;  Inner  Portion  of  the  Adductor  Magnus  Muscle, 
WITH  THE  Internal  Intermuscular  Septum,  and  the  Opening  (Hiatus  Adductorius) 
through  which  the  Femoral  Vessels  pass  into  the  Popliteal  Space.  (This  Opening 
constitutes  the  Inferior  Orifice  of  Hunter's  Canal.)  Obturator  Externus  Muscle. 
Bursa  of  the  Aponeurotic  Expansion  of  the  Sartorius  Muscle  (Bursa  Anserina) 
{see  note  ^  to  p.  362). 


Musculi  femoris— Muscles  of  the  thigh. 


THE  MUSCLES   OF   THE   LOWER   EXTREMITY 


357 


r  Pectineus  muscle 
i      _  Obturator  canal 

Canalis  obturatorius 


Obturator  ezternus  muscle 


Iliopsoas  muscle— 
Pectineus  muscle  - 


Adductor  brevis  muscle.. 


Subcrureus  muscle 

M.  articularis 

genu 


Vastus  intemus  muscle  . 
M.  vastus  medialis 


-Adductor  longus  muscle 

-Adductor  brevis  muscle 

Inferior  or  descending  ramus 

of  the  pubis 
Ramus  inferior  ossis  pubis 

-Quadratus  femoris  muscle 


Adductor  brevis  muscle 


Adductor  magnus  muscle 


'Adductor  longus  muscle 


Opening  in  the  adductor  magnus  muscle 

through  which  the  femoral  vessels  pass 

into   the   popliteal   space,   forming  the 

inferior  orifice  of  Hunters  canal 

Hi.Uiis  adcliictoriiis 

Internal  intermuscular  septum 
Septum  intermusculare  mediale 


Fig.  606. — AnnrcTOR  M.\gnus  Muscle  with  riiii  IntiiUnal  Intermi'sculak  Septum  and  the 
Opening  (Hiatus  Aduuctorius)  through  which  the  Femoral  Vessels  pass  into  the 
Popliteal  Space.  (This  Opening  constitutes  the  Inferior  Orifice  of  Hunter's  Canal.) 
Right  Thi'.h,  seen  from  Before.     Obturator  Externus  Muscle.     Subcrureus  Muscle. 

The  quadriceps  extensor  cruris,  pectineus,  .iikluclor  longus,  and  ndiUictor  brevis  muscles  have  been 
removed.    The  limb  is  in  the  position  of  external  rotation. 


Musculi  femoris— Muscles  of  the  thigh. 


358 


THE  MUSCLES   OF   THE  LOWER  EXTREMITY 


Posterior  or  great  sacrosciatic_ 

ligament 
Lig.  sacrotuberosum 


Tuberosity  of  the  ischium  — 
Tuber  ischiadicum 


Semitendinosus  muscle — 


Semimembranosus  muscle 


Popliteal  space  (the  ham) I 

Fossa  poplitea 


Gastrocnemius  muscle  (inner  head)  — 
M.  gastrocnemius  (caput  mediale) 

I  See  note  *  to  p.  340. 


Fyriformis  muscle — M   piriformis 

Gemellus  superior  muscle' 

M.  gemellus  superior 

^.Obturator  intemus  muscle* 
-■-'"    M.  obturator  internus 

Great  trochanter 

Trochanter  major 

Gemellus  inferior  muscle' 

M.  gemellus  inferior 

Quadratus  femoris  muscle 

Adductor  minimus  muscle^ 
Adductor  magnus  muscle^ 


..Vastus  extemus  muscle 
M.  vastus  lateralis 

..Linea  aspera  of  the  femur 
Linea  aspera  femoris 

Biceps  flexor  cniris  muscle 
-  (long  head) 

M,  biceps  femoris  (caput  longum) 

-Biceps  flexor  cruris  muscle 

(short  head! 

M.  biceps  femoris  (caput 

breve) 


Plantaris  muscle 


Gastrocnemius  muscle  (outer  head) 
M.  gastrocnemius  (caput  laterale) 


J Head  of  the  fibula 

-  Capitulum  fibula; 


2  See  note  =  to  p.  345. 


Fig.  607. — Muscles  on  the  Posterior  and  Outer  Sides  of  the  Right  Thigh,  the  Limb 

BEING  ROTATED  INWARDS.  SeEN  FROM  BEHIND.  BiCEPS  FlEXOR  CrURIS  MuSCLE  ;  SEMI- 
TENDINOSUS Muscle;  Distal  Portion  of  the  Semimembranosus  Muscle.  Relations  of 
THE  Gastrocnemius  Muscle  to  these  Muscles.  Popliteal  Space  (the  Ham).  Quad- 
ratus Femoris  Muscle,  with  the  Adductor  Magnus  Muscle  {see  note  -  above)  in  Contact 
WITH  ITS  Lower  Border.  Adductor  Minimus  Muscle  {see  note  ^  above),  not  clearly 
separable  above  from  the  Adductor  Magnus  Muscle  {see  note  ^  above).  Vastus  Externus 
Muscle,  the  Outer  Head  of  the  Quadriceps  Extensor  Cruris  Muscle. 


Musculi  femoris — Muscles  of  the  thigh. 


THE  MUSCLES   OF  THE  LOWER  EXTREMITY 


359 


Gemellus  superior  muscle  - 

Obturator  internus  muscle' — 

Gemellus  inferior  muscle'' 

Obturator  extemus  muscle.  _ 


Biceps  Sexor  cruris  muscle  (long  head'  _ 
M.  biceps  femoris  (caput  Ionium) 

Semitendinosus  muscle — ^ 


Adductor  mag^nus  muscle 


Semimembranosus  muscle 


Internal  .intermuscular  septum 
Septum  iiiterniiisculare  medialu 


Internal  condyle  of  the  femur 
Condylus  mt-dialis  femoris 


Gastrocnemius  muscle 


Pyriformis  muscle 
M.  piriformis 


*  Sec  note  '  lo  p.  340. 


Great  trochanter 

Trochanter  major 
Quadratus  femoris  muscle 
Small  trochanter 

Trochanter  minor 

Adductor  minimus  muscle- 


"    Adductor  magnus  muscle- 


Vastus  extemus  muscle 

'    M.  vastus  lateralis 


Linea  aspera  of  the  femur 
l,inea  aspera  femoris 


Biceps  flexor  cruris  muscle  (short  head) 
M    biceps  femoris  (caput  breve) 


Biceps  flexor  cruris  muscle  (long  head) 
M    biceps  femoris  (caput  longum) 


Popliteal  surface  of  the  femur 

rianum  popHteuni  femoris 

Plantaris  muscle 


Head  of  the  fibula 

I  apitiihim  hbiilx- 

'  Sec  note  =  10  p.  345. 


Fig.  608. — MuscLKs  at  tiii-:  Back  of  Tini  Right  Thigh,  Tin-;  Limu  being  kotated  inwards, 
THE  Long  Huau  of  the  Biceps  Flexor  Cruris  and  the  Semitendinosus  Muscle  having 

BEEN    REMOVED.      SeEN    FROM    BEHIND.      SEMIMEMBRANOSUS    MuSCLE;    SlIORT    HeAD   OF   THE 

Biceps    Flexor    Cruris    Muscle  ;    Adductor    Magnus    {sec  note  -  above)   and   Adductor 
Minimus  {see  note  ^  above)  Muscles;   Vastus  Externus  Muscle. 

I3y  tlie  removal  of  the  quadratus  femoris  muscle,  the  outer  portion  of  the  obturator  externus  muscle 

has  been  exposed. 


Musculi  femoris— Muscles  of  the  thigh. 


360 


THE   MUSCLES   OF  THE  LOWER   EXTREMITY 


Surface  of  origin  of  the  gluteus  ^ 
maximus  muscle 
Posterior  or  great  sacrosciatic  ligament 
Lig.  sacrotuberosum 

Tuberosity  of  the  ischium 
Tuber  ischiadicum 


Adductor  magnus  muscle'  (origin),^ 

Adductor  minimus  muscle'  (origin)  v^ 
Gracilis  muscle  (origin) 
Adductor  brevis  muscle  (origin'  -, 

Pubic  symphysis  - 

Adductor  longus  muscle  (tendon  of  origin)   '' 

Pectineus  muscle  (origin) 
Iliopsoas  muscle  (insertion) ' 

Pectineus  muscle  (tendon  of  insertion) 
Adductor  brevis  muscle  (tendon  of  insertion) ' 


Adductor  longus  muscle  (tendon  of  insertion) 


Adductor  magnus  muscle'  (insertion)--- 


Vastus  intemus  muscle - 
M.  vastus  medialis 

Opening  in  the  adductor  magnus  muscle 

through  which  the  femoral  vessels  pass— 

into  the  popliteal  space,  forming  the 

inferior  orifice  of  Hunter's  canal 

Hiatus  adductorius 

Popliteal  surface   ^ 

Planum  popliteum  ~~ 

Internal  intermuscular  septum 
(tendon  of  the  adductor         -• 
magnus  muscle) 
Septum  intermusculare  mediale 

Inner  head  of  the     — 
gastrocnemius  muscle 

Tendon  of  the  semimembranosus  muscle-" 


Posterior  ligament  of  the  knee-joint' 
Lig.  popliteum  obliquum 


Common  tendon  of  origin  for  the  semitendinosus  muscle 
and  the  long  head  of  the  biceps  flexor  cruris  muscle 

Tendon  of  origin  of  the  semimembranosus 

muscle 
^    •  Quadratus  femoris  muscle  (origin) 

Gluteus  medius  muscle 

\        JI.  glutaeus  medius 

Gluteus  maximus  muscle 
(divided  and  turned  outwards) 
M.  glutaus  maximus 
•  Obturator  extemus  muscle 


'  -  Great  trochanter 
Trochanter  major 

-Quadratus  femoris  muscle  (insertion) 


Small  trochanter 
Trochanter  minor 


Adductor  minimus  muscle' 
(tendon  of  insertion) 

-Tendinous  insertion  of  the  gluteus  maximus 
muscle  into  the  gluteal  ridge 

Partial  insertion  of  the  gluteus  maximus 
muscle  into  the  fascia  lata 

Deep  fascia  of  the  thigh,  or  fascia  lata 


-Vastus  extemus  muscle 
M.  vastus  lateralis 

Short  head  of  the  biceps  flexor 
cruris  muscle  (origin) 


Linea  aspera  of  the  femur 

Linea  aspera  femoris 


External  intermuscular  septum 

Septum  intermusculare  laterale 


-Plantaris  muscle 
Tendon  of  insertion  of  the  biceps  flexor  cruris  muscle 

Outer  head  of  the  gastrocnemius  muscle 

Head  of  the  fibula 
Cnpitulum  fibulai 
Popliteus  muscle 
Soleus  muscle 
M.  soleus 


'  See  note  =  to  p.  345. 

Fig.  6og. — Attachment  of  Muscles  (Origins  and  Insertions)  to  the  Outer  Aspect  of  the 

HiP-BONE  AND  TO  THE  POSTERIOR  AsPECT  OF  THE  FeMUR.      RiGHT  SiDE,  SEEN  FROM   BEHIND. 


Musculi  femoris — Muscles  of  the  thigh. 


THE  MUSCLES   OF   THE  LOWER   EXTREMITY 


361 


Great  sacrosciatic  foramen 

Foramen  ischiadicum  majiis 

Posterior  or  great  sacrosciatic, 

ligament 

Lig.  sacrotubcrosum 


Extremity  of  the  coccyx  J*J 

Apex  ossis  coccygis  ^"^ 

Tuberosity  of  the  ischium— 

Tuber  ischiadicum 

Surface  of  origin  of  the  obturator  .^ 
eztemus  muscle 

Obturator  canal 
Canalis  obturatorius'~---> 


Pubic  symphysis  ._n1^ -^.  Jij 
Symphysis  ossium   r" 
pubis 

Spine  of  the  pubis-''  y' 

Tuberculiini  pubiciim  ^'' 

Insertion  of  the  iliopsoas  muscle' 

Insertion  of  the  pectineus  muscle  into'' 
the  pectineal  line  of  the  femur 

Upper  limit  of  the  origin  of  the  vastus 
intemus  muscle 


Lower  limit  of  the  origin  of  the  vastus- 
intemus  muscle 


Internal  intermuscular  septum 

Septum  iiuermur-culare  mediale 


Inner  head  of  the  gastrocnemius - 
muscle  (origin) 

Posterior  ligament  of  the  knee-joint. 
Lig.  popliteum  ol)lir|mim 

Semimembranosus  muscle 
(tendon  of  insertion) 
Internal  lateral  ligament  of, 
the  knee-joint 
lAg.  collaterale  tibiale 
Popliteus  muscle — M.  popliteus' 


Posterior  superior  spine  of  the  ilium 

Spina  iliaca  posterior  superior 


Middle  gluteal  line 
U.S. :  Middle  curved  line 
Unea  gluta^a  anterior 


.Ala  of  the  ilium 

Ala  ossis  ilium' 


.Great  trochanter 

Trochanter  major 


Upper  limit  of  the  origin  of  the 
vastus  extemus  muscle 


Small  trochsmter 

Trochanter  minor 

Tendinous  insertion  of  the  gluteus  maximus 
muscle  Into  the  gluteal  ridge 


Deep  fasciculi  of  origin  of  the  vastus 
extemus  muscle 


Inner  gtirface  of  the  femur- 

Facies  raedialis  fcmuris 


Origin  of  the  vastus  intemus 

muscle  from  the  inner  lip  of 

the  linea  aspera 


..Outer  surface  of  the  femur 

Facies  lateralis  femoris 

Linea  aspera  of  the  femur 

Linea  aspera  femoris 


Origin  of  the  vastus  extemus  muscle  from  the 
outer  lip  of  the  linea  aspera 


Lower  limit  of  the  origin  of  the  vastus 
extemus  muscle 

Popliteal  svirface 

rianum  popliteum 

Flantaris  muscle  (surface  of  origin) 

Outer  head  of  the  gastrocnemius 

muscle  (origin) 

External  lateral  ligament  of  the  knee-joint 

"'I.ii;.  cullateralc  fibulare 

Biceps  flexor  cruris  muscle  (tendon 
of  insertion) 

Head  of  the  fibula 
Capituhiin  fibulx 


■  The  author  treats  i/iuitt  as  .in  indccliiLiblc  noun,  i-ind  1  )i,ivc  fitllowcd  him  here,  as  in  the  section  on  Osteology,  in  writing  a/a  osris 
ilium  instead  nffi/a  ossis  iiii,  £ngli.sb  anntoinisL^,  however,  when  u^ing  I.atin  terminology,  gcncrnlly  decline  itiuiti,  .•.peaking  of  tfirni/m 
t/ii,  etc.— T«. 

Tig.  6io. — Att.vciimk.nt  of  Muscles  (Origins- and   Insertions)   to  tiiic   Posterior  Aspect 

OF  tiih  KiniiT  1'"i:ml'R. 


Musculi  femoris     Muscles  of  the  thiyh. 


46 


362 


THE   MUSCLES   OF   THE   LOWER   EXTREMITY 


Semitendinosus  muscle— 
Gracilis  muscle— 


Sartorius  muscle 


Bursa  of  the  aponeurotic  expansion  — 
of  the  sartorius  muscle' 
Bursa  anserina 

Fopliteus  muscle 

Deep  fascia  of  the  leg.  _ 

Fascia  cruris 


_  Biceps  flexor  cruris  muscle 

''  M.  biceps  feraoris 


Semimembranosus  muscle 


Gastrocnemius  muscle  (inner  head) 

Bursa  of  the  inner  head  of  the 

gastrocnemius  muscle- 
Bursa  m.  gastrocnemii  medialis 


■Bursa  of  the  semimembranosus 

muscle' 
Bursa  m.  semimembraiiosi 


Plantaris  muscle 


Gastrocnemius  muscle 
(outer  head) 


I  The  bursa  of  the  aponeurotic  expansion  of  the  sartorius  tiiifscU  (called  by  the  author  bursa  anserina)  is  situate  between  the  root  of 
the  aponeurotic  expansion  of  the  tendon  of  insertion  of  the  sartorius  muscle  {^pes  anserinus,  according  to  Toldt,  see  Fig.  6oOj  p.  351,  and 
note  '  on  same  page)  and  the  subjacent  tendons  of  insertion  of  the  gracilis  and  semitendinosus  muscles.  .\  prolongation  of  the  bursa 
passes  more  deeply  between  these  latter  tendons  and  the  subjacent^  internal  lateral  ligament  of  the  knee-joint. — Tn. 

^  The  bursa  of  the  inner  /lead  0/  the  gastrocneiniits  jnuscle  is  situate  between  the  inner  head  of  origin  of  the  gastrocnemius  muscle 
and  the  tendon  of  the  semimembranosus  muscle.  This  bursa  frequently  communicates  with  the  knee-joint.  Higher  up,  between  the 
tendon  of  the  inner  head  of  the  gastrocnemius  muscle  and  the  femur,  there  is  usually  a  second,  smaller  synovial  bursa,  which  may  also 
communicate  with  the  knee-joint. — Tr. 

3  The  bursa  0/  the  sentimentbratwsits  muscle  is  situate  between  the  tendon  of  insertion  of  the  semimembranosus  muscle  and  the 
prominent  upper  margin  of  the  groove  on  the  internal  tuberosity  of  the  tibia  into  which  the  semimembranosus  muscle  is  mainly 
inserted. — Tk. 

Fig.  611. — Region  of  the  Knee,  seen  obliquely  from  Behind  and  Within.  Right  Limb. 
BuRSiE  (Subtendinous  Mucous  Burs.e)  in  the  Inner  Part  of  the  Posterior  Region 
of  the  Knee,  as  seen  after  Division  of  the  Inner  Head  of  the  Gastrocnemius 
Muscle  :  Bursa  of  the  Inner  Head  of  the  Gastrocnemius  Muscle,  Bursa  of  the  Semi- 
membranosus Muscle,  Bursa  of  the  Aponeurotic  Expansion  of  the  Sartorius  Muscle 
(Bursa  Anserina). 


Bursae  mucosae  regionis  genu  posterioris — Bursae  of  the  posterior  region  of  the  knee. 


THE  MUSCLES   OF   THE   LOWER   EXTREMITY 


363 


Semimembranosus  muscle- 


Inner  head  of  the  gastrocnemius  muscle 


Bursa  of  the  inner  head  of  the 

gastrocnemius  muscle' 
Bursa  m.  gastrocnemii  medialis 


Popliteus  muscle 


Bursa  of  the  popliteus  muscle' 
Bursa  m.  poplitei 


•Popliteal  canal' 
'Canalis  popliteus 


Short  head  of  the  biceps  flexor 

cruris  muscle 
Caput  liruvc  m.  bicipitis  fomoris 
Long  head  of  the  biceps  flexor 
cruris  muscle 
Caput  longum  m.  bicipitis  femoris 


Plantaris  muscle 
Bicipitogastrocnemial  bursa'' 
iJursa  l'.cipito),'asirociKTnialis 
Outer  head  of  the  gastrocnemius  muscle 
Caput  laterale  m.  Kastrocm-mii 
Bursa  of  the  outer  head  of  the 

gastrocnemius  muscle' 
liursa  m.  gastrocnemii  lateralis 


Inferior  bursa  of  the  biceps  flexor 

cruris  muscle'' 
Bursa  m.  bicipitis  femoris  inferior 

Tendinous  arch  of  the  soleus  muscle' 
Arcus  tendineus  m.  solei 


Peroneus  longus  muscle 
M.  peronaeus  longus 


Soleus  muscle 


'  See  note  =  to  p.  362. 

=  The  /'tirsa  0/  the  popliicus  muscle  (so-called)  is  an  expansion  of  the  synovial  cavity  of  the  knee-joint  passing  downwards  iwtwecn 
the  tendon  of  origin  of  the  popliteus  muscle  and  the  hack  of  the  outer  tuberosity  of  the  tibia.— Tr. 

3  *ro/>liteal  Canal, ~'X\\\s  name  is  not  ased  by  English  aiialomisLs.  It  is  given  bv  the  author  to  the  siiacc  beneath  (anterior  to)  the 
tendinous  arch  of  the  soleus  muscle  (see  note  7  on  this  page)  throu'^h  which  the  posterior  tibial  vessels  and  ncr\'e  i>ass  from  the  popliteal 
space  tieneath  the  soleus  muscle. — Tk. 

4  The  HcipitosatlrKHcmial  bursa  is  situate  between  the  biceps  llexor  cruris  muscle  and  the  outer  head  of  the  gastrocnemius 
muscle. — Tk. 

5  The  bursa  0/  the  outer  head  0/ the  ffastriKnemius  muscle  is  situated  beneath  the  tendon  of  origin  of  the  outer  head  of  the  gastroc- 
nemius muscle,  between  that  tendon  and  the  femur. — Tr. 

^  The  inferior  bursa  0/  the  bictt>s  Jlexor  cruris  muscle  is  situate  between  the  tetidon  of  insertion  of  that  muscle  and  the  external 
lateral  ligament  uf  the  knee-joint.— Tk. 

7  The  tcndintfut  arch  0/ the  soleus  muscle^  passing  from  the  upper  t>art  of  the  l>ack  of  the  fibula  obliquely  downwards  and  inwards  to 
the  upper  part  of  the  back  of  the  tibia,  arches  over  the  tibial  vessels  ana  nerve,  and  serves  for  the  origin  of  the  middle  fibres  of  the  soleus 
nmsclc. — Tk. 

Fig.  612. — Region  of  the  Kneij,  seen  from  Behind.  Right  Limb.  Bl'ks.e  (Si'htendinous 
Mucous  BuRS.E)  IN  the  Outer  Part  of  the  Posterior  Region  of  the  Knee,  as  seen 
AFTER  Removal  of  Both  Heads  of  the  Gastrocnemius  Muscle  and  of  the  Plantaris 
Muscle:  P.icipitogastrocnemial  Bursa,  Bursa  of  the  Outer  Head  of  the  Gastrocnemius 
Muscle,  Inferior  Bursa  of  the  Biceps  Flexor  Cruris  Muscle,  Bursa  of  the  Popliteus 
Muscle,  Bursa  of  the  Inner  Head  of  the  Gastrocnemius  Muscle.  Tendinous  Arch 
of  the  Soleus  Muscle,  and  beneahi  it  (anteriorly)  the  Entrance  to  the 
'Popliteal  Canal. 


Bursse  mucosae  regionis  genu  posterioris— Bursae  of  the  posterior  region  of  the  knee. 

46 — 2 


364 


THE  MUSCLES   OF   THE  LOWER  EXTREMITY 


Head  of  the  fibula 

Capitulum  fibula; 


Anterior  (peroneal)  intermuscular  septum 
Septum  intermusculare  (fibulare)  anterius 


Deep  fascia  of  the  leg 

Fascia  cruris 


Tubercle  of  the  tibia 
Tuberositas  tibiae 


Internal  surface  of  tie  tibia 
Facies  medialis  tibia;- 


—  Anterior  border  of  the  tibia 

Crista  anterior  tibia 

Tibialis  anticus  muscle 
M.  tibialis  anterior 


Extensor  longus  digitorum  pedis  muscle 
M.  extensor  digitorum  longus 


Extensor  longus  vel  extensor  proprius 
hallucis  muscle- 

M.  extensor  hallucis  longus 


Anterior  annular  ligament  of  the  ankle, 

or  ligamentum  lambdoideum 

Lig.  cruciatum  cruris 

—  Extensor  brevis  hallucis  muscle- 
M.  extensor  hallucis  brevis 


Peroneus  tertius  muscle 

M    peronaeus  tertius 

External  malleolus 
Malleolus  lateralis 

*Bursa  of  the  sinus  of  the  tarsus 
♦Bursa  sinus  tarsi 
*Inferior  retinaculum  of  the  peronei  tendons' 
^Retinaculum  mm.  perona?orum  inferius 

Extensor  brevis  digitorum  pedis  muscle- 
M,  extensor  digitorum  brevis 

Peroneus  longus  tendon  ^ 
M.  peronaeus  longus 

Peroneus  brevis  tendon 
M,  peronaeus  brevis 

Abductor  minimi  digiti  pedis  muscle 

M.  abductor  digiti  quinti 

*Opponens  minimi  digiti  pedis  muscle 

*M.  opponens  digiti  quinti 

^  Immediately  behind  and  below  the  external  malleolus  the  tendons  of  the  peroneus  longus  and  brevis  muscles  are  contained  in  asingle 
synovial  sheath,  the  fibrous  strand  which  binds  them  down,  passing  from  the  point  of  the  outer  malleolus  to  the  outer  side  of  thecalcaneum, 
being  called  by  the  author  reihiacttltiin  mm.  peromeortim  supcrhis  (see  Fig.  615,  p.  366),  and  by  English  anatomists  the  external  annular 
ligament  of  the  ank'.e.  More  distally,  on  the  outer  side  of  the  calcaneum,  each  tendon  has  its  own  sheath,  the  two  being  separated  by  a 
fibrous  septum  and  by  the  trochlear  process  or  peroneal  spine  of  the  calcaneum,  when  that  process  exists.  The  fibrous  band  which  binds 
the  two  tendons  to  the  calcaneum  has  received  no  special  name  from  English  anatomists,  but  is  called  by  the  author  retinaculum  tnm. 
feronteorunt  in/enus  (^s&c  Fig.  613,  supra^  Fig.  615,  p.  366,  and  Fig.  621,  p.  372). — Tk. 

2  By  many  English  anatomists  the  extensor  brevis  hallucis  muscle  is  regarded,  not  .as  an  independent  muscle,  but  merely  as  the  inner- 
most slip  of  the  extensor  breviis  digitorum  pedis  muscle,  and  under  these  circumstances  the  extensor  longus  hallucis  muscle  is  termed 
extensor  proprius  hallucis. — Tr. 

3  The  name  opponens  minimi  digiti  {pedis)  is  sometimes  given  to  that  portion  of  the  Jlexor  brez'is  minimi  digiti  pedis  muscle  which 
is  inserted  into  the  fifth  metatarsal  bone  (the  Imlk  of  the  muscle  being  inserted  into  the  base  and  external  border  of  the  proximal  phalanx. 
Occasionally  (3'^  per  cent.)  this  portion  of  the  muscle  is  entirely  separate  from  the  rest ;  while  somewhat  more  frequently  (10  per  cent.)  the 
insertion  of  the  flexor  brevis  minimi  digiti  into  the  metatarsal  bone  is  entirely  wanting. — Tk. 

Fig.  613. — Muscles  on  the  Front  of  the  Right  Leg:  Tibialis  Anticus  Muscle;  Extensor  Longus  Digitorum 
Pedis  Muscle,  with  the  Peroneus  Tertius  Muscle  ;  Extensor  Longus  vel  Extensor  Proprius  H.\llucis 
MU.SCLE  (see  note  -  atomic).  Anterior  (Peroneal)  Intermuscular  Septum.  Extensor  Brevis  Digitorum 
Muscle  (see  note  ^  above).    Bursa  of  the  Sinus  of  the  Tarsus. 

That  portion  of  the  deep  fascia  of  the  leg  from  which  numerous  fasciculi  of  the  two  first-named  muscles  arise  h.is  been 
retained,  also  that  portion  which  covers  the  peronei  muscles  on  the  outer  side  of  the  leg,  and  the  anterior  annular 
ligament  of  the  ankle  (ligamentum  lambdoideum,  ligamentum  cruciatum  cruris). 


Musculi  cruris — Muscles  of  the  leg. 


THE   MUSCLES   OF   THE   LOWER   EXTREMITY 


365 


Head  of  the  fibula— 
Capitulum  fibulx 


Peroneus  brevis  muscle 

M.  peronacus  brevis 


Extensor  longns  vc!  extensor  proprius 

hallucis  muscle' 

M.  extensor  hallucis  longus 

Interosseous  membrane,  or  ligament,  of  the  leg 
Mombrana  interossea  cruris 

Fibula 


Extensor  longua  digitorum  — 
pedis  muscle 
M.  extensor  digitorum  longus 

Fundiform  ligament^ 

I.ig.  fundifurme  pedis 

Extensor  brevis  digitorum  pedis  muscle' 
M.  extensor  digitorum  brevis 


Tubercle  of  the  tibip. 
Tuberositas  tibi;i: 


Anterior  border  of  the  tibia 
Crista  anterior  tibia; 

Tibialis  anticus  muscle 
M.  tibialis  anterior 


Internal  surface  of  the  tibia 

Facics  medialis  tibirc 


Anterior  annular  ligament  of  the  ankle, 
or  ligamentmn  lambdoideum  (divided) 

Lig   cruciatum  cruris 


Extensor  brevis  hallucis  muscle' 

M.  extensor  hallucis  brevis 


'  Sec  note  "  to  p.  364. 

*  The /utiiii/orm  ligament  of  Retzius  is  the  name  given  to  the  sinslc  outer  half  of  the  ^-sh.iped  lower  liand  of  the  anterior  annuUr 
IJKaincnt  of  the  ankle  ;  attached  extrrnalty  to  the  calcancum,  it  projects  upwards  and  inwards,  forming  a  loop  through  which  the  tendons 
of  the  extensor  longus  digitorum  pedis  and  peroneus  icrtius  muscles  pass  from  the  front  of  the  leg  to  the  dorsum  of  the  foot. — Tk. 

Fig.  614. — MuscLKs  on  the  Front  of  thk  Right  Leg,  the  Extknsok  Longus  Digitorum 
Pedis  and  Peroneus  Tertius  Muscles  having  been  removed:  Extensor  Longus  vel 
Extensor  Proprius  Hallucis  Muscle  ;  Tibialis  Anticus  Muscle. 

I!y  the  removal  of  the  peroneus  longus  muscle,  the  fleshy  belly  of  the  peroneus  brevis  muscle  has  been 
laid  bare.  Tfic  anterior  annular  ligament  of  the  ankle  (ligamentum  lambdoideum,  ligamcntum 
cruciatum  cruris)  has  been  divided  between  tlie  tendons  of  the  extensor  longus  digitorum  pedis 
and  the  extensor  longus  vr/  extensor  proprius  hallucis  muscles,  and  llie  outer  portion  of  this 
ligament  has  been  turned  downwards,  in  order  to  demonstrate  the  loop  of  the  fundiform  ligament 
of  Retzius  {sic  »p/t' -rt/'rwi-)  surrounding  the  tendons  of  the  extensor  longus  digitorum  pedis  and 
peroneus  tertius  muscles. 


Musculi  cruris — Muscles  of  the  leg. 


366 


THE  MUSCLES   OF   THE  LOWER   EXTREMITY 


External  lateral  ligament  of  the  knee-joint. 

Lig.  collaterale  fibulare 

Tendon  of  the  popliteus  muscle 
Tendo  m.  poplitei 

Head  of  the  fibula 
Capitulum  fibula" 


Feroneus  longus  muscle 

M.  peronaeus  longus 


Deep  fascia  of  the  leg 

Fascia  cruris 


Feroneus  brevis  muscle 

M.  peronajus  brevis 


->''    Patellar  ligament,  or  infrapatellar  tendon 
l^lfflt    ■/  '"'"'•  patella; 

Deep  infrapatellar  bursa 

M  Bursa  infrapatellaris  profunda 


Superior  annular  ligament  of  the  aiikle, 

or  upper  band  of  the  anterior  annular 

ligament  of  the  ankle 

Lig.  transversum  cruris 


Anterior  annular  ligament  of  the  ankle, 
or  ligamentum  lambdoideum 

Lig.  cruciatum  cruris 


Deep  fascia  of  tte  dorsum 

of  the  foot 

Fascia  dorsalis  pedis 


Tendo  Achillis 

Tendo  calcaneus  (Achillis) 

External  annular  ligament  of  the  ankle' 

Retinaculum  mm.  peronacorum  superius 

"Inferior  retinaculum  of  the 
peronei  tendons' 
"Retinaculum  mm.  peronsorum 
inferius 


Abductor  minimi  digiti  muscle 

M.  abductor  digiti  quinti 

^  See  note  »  to  p.  364.  , .     . 

2  According  to  English  anatomists,  \.\ift/eiii07-ai  attachment  of  the  popliteus  is  the  on'^'ijt  of  that  muscle,  and  the  tih'a/  attachment  its 
insertioti. — Tr. 

Fig.  615. —  Muscles  on  the  Outer  Side  of  the  Right  Leg:  Feroneus  Longus  Muscle; 
Feroneus  Bre\''is  Muscle.  Tendon  of  Insertion  of  the  Popliteus  Muscle  (see 
note  -  above).  Deep  Infrapatellar  Bursa.  Deep  Fascia  of  the  Leg  and  Deep  Fascia 
OF  the  Dorsum  of  the  Foot.  Superior  Annular  Ligament  of  the  Ankle  (Ligamentum 
Transversum  Cruris)  and  Anterior  Annular  Ligament  of  the  Ankle  (Ligamentum 
Lambdoideum,  Ligamentum  Cruciatum  Cruris). 


Musculi  cruris — Muscles  of  the  leg. 


THE  MUSCLES  OF   THE  LOWER  EXTREMITY 


367 


Deep  fascia  of  the  thigh,  or 

fascia  lata,  turned  outwards 

I'ascia  lata 


Fasciculi  of  the  vastus  eztemus  muscle 
arising  from  the  fascia  lata 


External  condyle  of  the  femur 

lluudyhis  lateralis  femoris 

Insertion  of  the  popliteus  muscle' 
External  lateral  ligament  of  the  knee-joint 
Li^.  cullatcrale  libtilare 

Head  of  the  fibula  • 

Capitulum  fibula; 

Aperture  for  the  passage  of 
the  external  popliteal  nerve 


Anterior  peroneal)  intermuscular  septum 

Septum  interjiuisculare  jlibularcl  anterius 

Surface  of  origin  of  the  peroneus 
longus  muscle 


Surface  of  origin  of  the  extensor  longus 
digitorum  pedis  muscle 


Surface  of  origin  of  the  extensor  longus  ve! 
extensor  proprius  ballucis  muscle- 


Surface  of  origin  of  the  peroneus 
brevis  muscle 


Origin  of  the  peroneus  tertius  muscle 


Anterior  border  of  the  fibula 
Crista  anterior  fibula; 


Tendo  Achillis 

Tendo  calcaneus  (Achillis)- 

Tuberosity  of  the  calcaneum 

Tuber  calcanei 

'Inferior  retinaculum  of  the  peronei  tendons''    - 
•Kctinaculuin  mm   j>er<<n;i-oriim  inf*-riiw 

Tendon  of  the  peroneus  longus  muscle  ' 
Insertion  of  the  peroneus  brevis  muscle 


—  Vastus  extemus  muscle 
M.  vastus  lateralis 


-  Patella 

■Capsule  of  the  knee-joint 

Capsiila  articularis  genu 


Patellar  ligament,  or  infrapatellar  tendon 
Ligamentum  patella; 

Aperture  for  the  passage  of  the  anterior  tibial 
artery,  between  the  attachments  of  the  tibialis 
anticus  muscle  to  the  tibia  and  fibula  respectively 
Tubercle  of  the  tibia 

Tuberositas  tibia; 


Surface  of  origin  of  the  tibialis 
anticus  muscle 

Interosseous  membrane,  or  ligament, 

of  the  leg 

Membrana  interossea  cruris 


Anterior  border  of  the  tibia 

Crista  anterior  tibix 

External  surface  of  the  tibia 
Facies  lateralis  tibia; 


Fasciculi  of  the  tibialis  anticus  muscle 
arising  from  the  fibula 


Deep  limb  of  the  outer  portion  of  the  lower  band 
of  the  anterior  annular  ligament  of  the  ankle' 

Cms  prufundum  Ii.l;   criiciaii  cruris 

Origin  of  the  extensor  brevis  digitorum  pedis  muscle- 

Calcaneocuboid  articulation     Articnlatio  calcaneocuboidea 

Insertion  of  the  peroneus  tertius  muscle 

Origin  of  the  dorsal  interosseous  muscles 

Insertion  of  the  extensor  brevis  ballucis  muscle 

Insertion  of  the  extensor  longus  vc!  extensor 
.  proprius  hallucis  muscle- 


-r-3C<"  --.^-,  ...   -.        ,. 

»  This  is  ihc  deep  limb  oS  iht/unJi/orm  li^nmenlof  Kcl/ius,  llic  looD  surroiimling  the  tcnduiM  of  ilic  extensor  longus  digilorum  pedis 
and  ifcroncus  tertius  muscles  (see  rig.  614,  p.  365,  and  note  ^  to  same  page). — Tk. 

Fig.  616. — Origin  of  Muscles  from  the  Front  .\ni)  Outer  Side  of  the  Leg  .\nd  fkom  thi: 
Dorsum  of  the  Foot.  Fasciculi  of  the  Vastus  Externus  Muscle  arising  from  the 
Fasci.\  Lat.\. 


Musculi  cruris— Muscles  of  the  leg. 


368 


THE  MUSCLES   OF   THE  LOWER  EXTREMITY 


Internal  intermuscular  septum  - 
Septum  imeniiusculare  mediale 


Internal  condyle  of  the  femur     .  ^ 
Condylus  medialis  femoris  |  V 

Inner  head  of  the  gastrocnemius  muscle 
Caput  mediale  m.  gastrocnemii 


-  Popliteal  surface  of  the  femur 

Planum  popliteura  femoris 

-Plantaris  muscle 


in      -  Outer  head  of  the  gastrocnemius  muscle 
Caput  laterale  m.  gastrocnemii 


|~  Gastrocnemius  muscle 


Tendon  of  the  plantaris  muscle - 


-Deep  layer  of  tlie  deep  fascia  of  the 

leg,  between  the  gastrocnemius  and 

soleus  muscles  and  the  deep  posterior 

muscles  of  the  leg 

Lamina  profunda  fasciae  cruris 


i 


,  Superficial  layer  of  the  deep  fascia 

of  the  leg 

Lamina  superficialis  fasciae  cruris 


Fig.  617.— Superficial  Group^  of  the  Posterior  Musclks  of  the  Right  Leg,  First  Portion:  Gastrocnemius 
Muscle,  constituting  the  Two  Superficial  Heads  of  the  ^Triceps  Sur.^  Muscle.^ 

Of  the  deep  fascia  of  the  leg.  the  lower  portion  of  the  superficial  layer,  which  binds  down  the  tendo  Achillis,  and  the  deep 
layer,  which  passes  from  side  to  side  between  the  superficial  and  the  deep  posterior  muscles  of  liie  leg,  have  been 
retained.     The  plantaris  muscle  and  its  tendon  are  partially  visible. 

J  The  author  divides  the  posterior  muscles  of  the  leg  into  three  groups  or  lavers,  the  6rst.  most  superficial,  consisting  of  the  gastroc- 
nemius muscle  ;  the  second  consisting  of  the  plantaris  and  soleus  muscles ;  and  the  third,  deepest,  consisting  of  the  popliteus,  flexor  longus 
hatlncis,  flexor  longus  digitorum  pedis  (or  flexor  perforans),  and  tibialis  pt>sticus  muscles.  This  arrancement  appears  a  ver>'  artificial  one, 
and  I  have  therefore  adhered  to  the  arrangement  usually  adopted  by  English  anatomists,  according  to  which  the  muscles  are  grouped  in 
two  layers  only  :  a  superficial,  consisting  of  the  gastrocnemius,  soleus,  and  plantaris  muscles  ;  and  a  deep,  consisting  of  the  muscles  already 
enumerated  as  making  up  the  author's  third  layer. — Tr. 

3  Triceps  Sun/-  Muscle. — This  name  is  given  by  the  author  to  the  gastrocnemius  and  soleus,  considered  as  a  single  three-headed 
muscle.     The  name  is  not  usua'ly  employed  in  England. — Tr. 


Musculi  cruris — Muscles  of  the  leg. 


THE   MUSCLES   OF   THE  LOWER   EXTREMITY 


369 


Semimembranosus  muscle 

Inner  head  of  the  gastrocnemius  muscle 

Caput  meiliale  m.  sastrocneniii 

Bursa  of  the  inner  head  of  the 

gastrocnemius  muscle' 
lUirsa  in.  gastrocnemii  medialis 
Posterior  ligament  of  the  knee-joint 
Lig.  popliteum  obliquum 


'5^ 


Biceps  flexor  cruris  muscle 
M.  biceps  femoris 

Outer  head  of  the  gastrocnemius  muscle 

Caput  laterale  m.  gastrocnemii 
'Plantaris  muscle 


Popliteus  muscle 


-Soleus  muscle 


Gastrocnemius  muscle 


Tendon  of  the  plantaris  muscle 


:i 


Deep  layer  of  the  deep  fascia  of  the  leg,  between 
the  gastrocnemius  and  soleus  muscles  and  the 
deep  posterior  muscles  of  the  leg 
Lamina  profunda  fasciae  cruris 
Teudo  Achillis 
Tendo  calcaneus  (Achillis) 


'    Sec  IlQlC  -'  ty  1>.  3^?. 

I'iG.  6i8.— SuPEKi'iciAL  Group  of  THii  Postkuior  Muscles  of  the  Right  Leg,  Second  Portion 
(see  note  '  top.  368),  AS  SEEN  after  the  Removal  of  the  Two  Superficial  Heads  of  the  *Tkiceps 
SuR.E  Muscle  (i.c.,  the  Upper  Part  of  the  Gastrocnemius  Muscle):  Soleus  Muscle; 
I'lantaris  Muscle.  Tendo  Achillis,  the  Common  Tendon  of  the  Three  Heads  of  the 
•Triceps  Sur.e  Muscle  (i.e.,  the  Tendon  formed  by  the  Union  of  tuf:  Flat  Tendons  of 
THE  Gastrocnemius  and  Soleus  Muscles).  Of  the  Deep  Group  of  Posterior  Muscles 
of  the  Leg,  the  Popliteus  Muscle  is  partly  visihle.  Deep  Layer  of  the  Deep  Fascia 
OF  the  Leg,  which  passes  from  Side  to  Side  r.i  tween  the  Superficial  and  the  Deep 
Posterior  Muscles  of  thi-:  Leg. 


Musculi  cruris— Muscles  of  the  leg 


47 


570 


THE   MUSCLES   OF   THE   LOWER  EXTREMITY 


Inner  head  of  the  gastrocnemius. - 
muscle 

Caput  mediale  m.  gastrocnemii 


.  Outer  head  of  the  gastrocnemius  muscle 
Caput  laterale  m.  gastrocnemii 


Posterior  ligament  of  the  knee-joint 

Lig.  popliteum  obliquum 
Bursa  of  the  semimembranosus  muscle '- 
Bursa  m.  semiraerabranosi 


Popliteus  muscle 
Semimembranosus  muscle--- 


External  lateral  ligament  of  the  knee-joint 

■  Lig.  collaterale  iibulare 

«j        Bursa  of  the  popliteus  muscle" — Bursa  m.  poplitei 
■M        Head  of  the  fibula 
Capitulum  fibulae. 


Tibialis  posticus  muscle 

M.  tibialis  posterior 


Flexor  longus  digitorum  pedis  muscle- 

M.  fle.'Lor  digitorum  longus 


Flexor  longus  hallucis  muscle 
M.  flexor  hallucis  longus 


Deep  fascia  of  the  leg 

Fascia  cruris 


Internal  malleolus. 

IVIalleolus  medialis 

Internal  annular  ligament  of  the  ankle  _ 
Lig.  laciniatum 


Posterior  process  of  the  astragalus 

'   Processus  posterior  tali 

Bursa  of  the  tendo  AchiUis^ 
Bursa  tendinis  calcanei  (Achillis) 


'  See  note  3  (o  p.  362.  =  Or  Jh-xcr pcr/orans  muscle.  3  Sec  note  =  to  p.  363. 

4  The  l'H7-sa  o/ihe  tendo  AcliUUs  is  situate  between  that  tendon  and  the  upper  part  uf  the  tuberosity  of  the  calcaneum. — Tr. 

Fig.  6ig. — -Deep  Group  of  the  Posterior  Muscles  of  the  Right  Leg  {$cc  note  '  fo/.  368),  as  seen 

AFTER   THE    REMOVAL   OF   ALL   ThREE    HeADS   OF   THE    "TRICEPS    SuR^    MUSCLE    (THAT   IS,    OF   THE 

Gastrocnemius  and  Soleus  Muscle),  the  Plantaris  Muscle,  and  the  Deep  Layer  of  the 
Deep  Fascia  of  the  Leg,  which  covers  the  Deep  Muscles  beneath  the  Gastrocnemius 
AND  Soleus  Muscles:  Flexor  Longus  Hallucis  Muscle;  Tibialis  Posticus  Muscle;  Flexor 
Longus  Digitorum  Pedis  Muscle  {see  note  -  above) ;  Popliteus  Muscle.  Bursa  of  the  Tendo 
Achillis,  Bursa  of  the  Popliteus  Muscle,  Bursa  of  the  Semimembranosus  Muscle. 

In  the  rcjjion  of  the  peronei  muscles  the  deep  fascia  of  the  leg.  with  the  posterior  (peroneal)  inter- 
muscular septum,  has  been  retained. 


Musculi  cruris — Muscles  of  the  leg. 


THE  MUSCLES   OF   THE   LOWER  EXTREMITY 


371 


Internal  tuberosity  of  the  tibia-- -^ 
Condylus  medialis  tibiae  y^ -*--' 

Site  of  insertion  of  the  semimembranosus- 
muscle 


.V^ 


Head  of  the  fibula 
r'  Capitulum  fibula: 


Entrance  to  the  'popliteal  canal' 


Surface  of  origin-  of  the  ■ 
popliteus  muscle 


Inner  line  of  origin  of  the  soleus  muscle 


^  Upper  line  of  origin  of  the 

soleus  muscle 
^-Tendinous  arch  of  the  soleus  muscle' 

Arciis  teiuliiieus  ni.  sulci 

Aperture  in  the  upper  part  of  the  interosseous 
"membrane,   between  the   attachments  of  the 

tibialis  posticus  muscle  for  the  passage  of  the 

anterior  tibial  artery 
Posterior  surface  of  the  fibula 
I'acies  posterior  IJbiila; 

Outer  line  of  origin  of  the  soleus  muscle 


Tendon  of  origin  for  the  tibialis 

posticus  and  flexor  longus  digitorum 

pedis  muscles'' 


■  Surface  of  origin  of  the  tibialis 
posticus  muscle 


Surface  of  origin  of  the  flexor  longus 
digitonun  pedis  muscle' 


Internal  border  of  the  tibia - 

Marfio^medialis  tibiiu 


Posterior  surface  of  the  tibia' 

Tacies  posterior  tibi.x 


m 


m 


Internal  border  of  the  fibula 

Crista  medialis  fibula; 


-Surface  of  origin  of  the  flexor  longus 
ballucis  muscle 


Posterior  (peroneal)  intermuscular 
septum 

Septum  internnisculare  (fibulare) 
posterius 


Aperture  for  the  passage  of  the  tendon 
of  the  tibialis  posticus  muscle 


Lower  limit  of  the  origin  of  the  flexor, 
longus  digitorum  pedis  muscle 

Tendon  of  the  tibialis  posticus  muscle--^ 


Lower  limit  of  the  origin  of  the  tibiidis 

posticus  muscle 

PeroneuB  brevis  muscle 
M.  peronxus  brevis 


Tendon  of  the  flexor  longus  digitorum 
pedis  muscle ' 


Plantar  nerves  and  arteries 

Nn.  et  Aa   plantares 

Internal  annular  ligament  of  the  ankle 
\.\\i   laciniatiim 


Tendon  of  the  plantaris  muscle 


•^Ai) 


vx 


-Tendon  of  the  percneus  longus  muscle 


Tendon  of  the  flexor  longus  ballucis 
muscle 

Astragalocalcaneal  articulation 

Articuiatio  talocalcanca 

-  Posterior  surface  of  the  tuberosity 
of  the  calcaneum 

-  Insertion  of  the  tendo  Achillis 


Abductor  ballucis  muscle 


^..^  ..w...      ...  ...   ,  ...  '  Sec  note  »  10  p.  166.  3  Or Jltxnr ^rforans  mu'^clc. 

»  It  ii  unu5u.ll  for  the  posterior  tibial  nerve  and  artery  to  divide  into  the  external  and  internal  pLintar  until  they  have  pa-acd  beneath 
the  internal  annul.tr  ligament  of  the  ankle. — Tr. 
^  See  note  7  to  p.  363. 


See  note  1  tn  p.  t/^^. 
u.tl  foi 


Fig.  620.— Surfaces  of  Origin  of  the  Posterior  Muscles  of  the  Leg. 


Musculi  cruris — Muscles  of  the  leg. 


47- 


372 


THE  MUSCLES   OF   THE  LOWER  EXTREMITY 


Peroneus  tertius  muscle 

M.  perona?us  tertius 

Synovial  sheath  of  the  tendons  of  the 

peroneus  longus  and  peroneus  brevis  muscles 

Vagina  tendinum  mm.  peronaeorum 

communis 

External  annular  ligament  of 

the  ankle' 

Retinaculum  mm.  peronaeorum 

superius 

Inferior  retinaculum  of  the 
peronei  tendons' 
Retinaculum  mm.  peronaeorum 
inferius 
Extensor  brevis  digitorum — 
pedis  muscle- 
M.  extensor  digitorum 
brevis 


Abductor  minimi  digiti  pedis  muscle 

M.  abductor  digiti  quinti  '^^ 

Opponens  minimi  digiti  pedis  muscle'. 

M.  opponens  digiti  quinti 


-Superior  annular  ligament  of  the  ankle, 

or  upper  band  of  the  anterior  annular 

'  ligament  of  the  ankle 


Anterior  annular  ligament  of  the  ankle, 

or  ligamentum  lambdoideum 
Synovial  sheath  of  the  tendon  of  the 

tibialis  anticus  muscle 
Vagina  tendmis  m.  tibialis  anterioris 


Synovial  sheath  of  the  tendons  of  the 

extensor  longus  digitorum  pedis  and  peroneus 

tertius  muscles 

Vagina  tendinum  m.  e.xtensoris  digitorum 

pedis  longi 
-  Synovial  sheath  of  the  tendon  of  the  extensor 
longus (r.v  proprius) hallucls  muscle 
Vagina  tendinis  m.  extensoris 
hallucis  longi 
Extensor  brevis  hallucis  muscle- 
M,  extensor  hallucis  brevis 


I  See  note  ^  to  p.  364. 


2  See  note  =  to  p.  364. 


3  See  note  3  to  p.  364. 


Fig.  621.— Muscles  of  the  Dorsum  and  of  the  Outer  Border  of  the  Foot  :  Extensor 
Brevis  Digitorum  Muscle  (see  note  -  to  p.  2,^:0  \  Extensor  Brevis  Hallucis  Muscle  {$ee 
notc-top.^d^);  Abductor  Minimi  Digiti  Pedis  Muscle;  Opponens  Minimi  Digiti  Pedis 
Muscle  {see  note  ^  to  p.  364).  Synovial  Sheaths  of  the  Tendons  on  the  Dorsum  of  the 
Foot  and  in  the  External  Retromalleolar  Region,  as  seen  after  Injection  with 
Strong  Alcohol.  Retinacula  Tendinum  Musculorum  Perin^eorum,  Superius  et 
Inferius  (External  Annular  Ligament  of  the  Ankle  and  Inferior  Retinaculum 
of  the  Peronei  Tendons — see  note  ^  to  p.  364).     Right  Foot. 


Musculi  pedis — Muscles  of  the  foot. 


TtlE  MUSCLES   OF  THE  LOWER  EXTREMITY 


373 


Fundiform  ligament  of  Retzius  (deep  limb 

I.ig.  fiimlilorme  pedis  (cms  profiindum) 

Extensor  brevis  digitorum  pedis  muscle  (the 
distal  extremity  having  been  removed) 

M.  estcnsor  digitorum  brevis 

Abductor  minimi  digiti  pedis  muscle 

M    abductor  digiti  qiiinti 
Tendon  of  the  peroneus  brevis  muscle  


Abductor  minimi  digiti  pedis  muscle 
M.  abductor  digiti  quinti 


Deep  fascia  of  the  leg 

Fascia  cruris 


Anterior  annular  ligament  of  the  ankle, 
or  ligamentum  lambdoideum 

I.ig-  criici.uiim  cruris 

Tendon  of  the  extensor  longus  (.1/  proprius) 
hallucis  muscle 


Tendon  of  the  tibialis  anticus  muscle 


Dorsal  interosseous  muscles 

Mm.  intcrossei  dorsales 


_  Dorsal  aponeuroses  of  the  extensor 

tendons  of  the  toes 

Aponeuroses  lendinum  extensorum 

digitorum  pedis 


'  See  note  =  to  p.  365  and  note  ■»  to  p.  367. 

Fir,.  622. — MrscLES  of  the  Dorsum  of  the  Foot,  after  Removal  of  the  Tendons  of  the 
Long  and  Short  Extensors  of  the  Toes  and  the  Superficial  Limb  of  the  Fundi- 
form Ligament  of  Retzius.  Partial  Origin  of  the  Extensor  Brevis  Digitorum 
Pedis  Muscle  from  the  Deep  Lnin  of  the  Fundiform  Ligament  of  Retzius.  Dorsal 
Interosseous  Muscles.  Aponeurotic  Expansions  of  the  E.xtensor  Tendons  on  the 
Dorsal  Surface  of  the  Toes.     Right  Foot. 


Musculi  pedis — Muscles  of  the  foot. 


374 


THE  MUSCLES   OF   THE  LOWER  EXTREMITY 


Tendon  of  the  plantaris  muscle 
/Tendo  m.  plantaris 

Tendo  Achillis 
"Tendo  calcaneus  (Achillis) 

Deep  layer  of  the  deep  fascia  of  the  leg,  passing 
from  side  to  side  of  the  limb  between  the  super- 
ficial and  the  deep  posterior  muscles 
Lamina  profunda  fascis  cruris 

-  Superficial  layer  of  the  deep  fascia 

of  the  leg 

Lamina  superficialis  fasciae  cruris 


I  Subcutaneous  bursa  of  the  internal 

malleolus 
(^Bursa  subcutanea  malleoli  medialis 

Internal  annular  ligament  of  the  ankle 

Lis.  iaciniatura 


Subcutaneous  bursa  of  the 

calcaneum 
Bursa  subcutanea  calcanea 


',  Subcutaneous  fat  of  the  sole  of  the  foot 
Panniculus  adiposus  plants 

Skin  of  the  sole  of  the  foot 

Cutis  plantae 


'  Abductor  hallucis  muscle 

M.  abductor  hallucis 


Fig.  623. — Internal  Malleolar  and  Internal  Retromalleolar  Regions  of  the  Right 
Foot,  with  the  Superficial  Layer  of  the  Deep  Fascia  of  the  Leg,  the  Internal 
Annular  Ligament  of  the  Ankle,  and  the  Subcutaneous  Bursa  of  the  Internal 
Malleolus.  The  Inner  Border  of  the  Foot  with  the  Abductor  Hallucis  Muscle. 
Subcutaneous  Bursa  of  the  Calcaneum,    Seen  from  the  Inner  Side. 


Musculi  pedis— Muscles  of  the  foot. 


THE  MUSCLES  OF   THE  LOWER  EXTREMITY 


375 


Inner  plantar  furrow 
Sulcus  plantaris  medialis 


Inner  plantar  eminence 
Eminentia  plantaris  medialis 


— Outer  plantar  furrow 
Sulcus  plantaris  lateralis 


-Outer  plantar  eminence 
ICmincntia  plantaris  lateralis 

Central  plantar  eminence 
Eminentia  plantaris  intermedia 


Superficial  transverse  ligament  of 

the  toes 

Fasciculi  transxcrsi  aponeurosis 

plantaris 


Fig.  624. — Aponeurosis  Plantaris,  Deep  Fascia  of  the  Sole,  or  Plantar  Fascia,  with 
the  slpeul-icial  transverse  ligament  of  the  toes  ;  the  fliikes  passing  from  the 
Plantar  Fascia  to  the  Skin,  and  the  Processes  to  the  Digital  Sheaths;  the  Plantar 
Eminences  and  Furrows  (Eminently  Plantares  et  Sulc.e  Plantakes)  dependent 
on  the  Disposition  of  the  Muscles  and  the  Intermuscular  Septa.     Right  Foot. 


Musculi  pedis     Muscles  of  the  foot. 


376 


THE   MUSCLES   OF   THE  LOWER  EXTREMITY 


Posterior  process  of  the  astragalus 

Processus  posterior  tali 

Tendon  of  the  flexor  longus  digitorum 

pedis  muscle' 

Tendon  of  the  tibialis  posticus  muscle 

Internal  malleolus 

Malleolus  medialis 


Abductor  hallucis  muscle 


Flexor  longus  digitorum  pedis  muscle' 

M.  flexor  digitorum  longus 

Flexor  brevis  digitorum  pedis  muscle- 
M.  flexor  digitorum  brevis 


Flexor  longus  hallucis  muscle 

M.  flexor  hallucis  longus 

Flexor  brevis  hallucis  muscle 
M.  flexor  hallucis  brevis 


-Flexor  accessorius  muscle 

M.  quadratus  plantre 


Tendon  of  the  flexor  longus 
hallucis  muscle 


-  Plantar  fascia 

Aponeurosis  plantaris 

Abductor  minimi  digiti  pedis  muscle 
M.  abductor  digiti  quinti 


Fourth  dorsal  interosseous  muscle 

M.  interosseus  dorsalis  IV. 

Flexor  brevis  minimi  digiti  pedis  muscle 
M.  flexor  digiti  quinti  brevis 


^     Lumbricales  muscles 
"^"^Jlm    lumbricales 

Transverse  metatarsal  ligament  (plantar 
distal  intermetatarsal  ligaments) 
'~^' — Ligg.  capitulorum  (ossium  metatarsalium) 

transversa 
-^^Vaginal  ligaments 
Ligg.  vaginalia 


^  Ot  Jlexor perforatts  lauscX^.  2  Ot  Jlexor pcr/oratits  TnM^s. 

3  Like  the  author,  English  anatomists  group  the  muscles  of  the  sole  in  four  laj'ers,  but  the  two  classifications  are  not  i^ntirely  identical. 
That  of  the  author  is  given  in  the  description  at  the  foot  of  Figs.  625  to  628.  ^  According  to  English  anatomists,  thejirst  or  superficial  layer 
consists  of  the  flexor  brevis  digitorum  (or  flexor  perforatus),  abductor  hallucis  and  abductor  minimidigiti  muscles  ;  the .Jtri>7/</ layer  consists 
of  the  tendons  of  the  flexor  longus  digitorum  (or  flexor  perforans)  and  flexor  longus  hallucis  muscles,  together  with  the  flexor  accessorius 
and  lumbricales  muscles;  the  ////></ layer  consists  of  the  flexor  brevis  hallucis,  adductor  obliquus  hallucis,  adductor  transversus  hallucis, 
and  flexor  brevis  minimi  digiti  muscles ;  and  the  foitrth  layer  consists  of  the  dorsal  and  plantar  interosseous  muscles,  together  with  the 
tendons  of  the  tibialis  posticus  and  peroneus  longus  muscles. — Tr. 

Fig.  625. — First  or  Superficial  Layer  of  the  Muscles  of  the  Sole  (see  note  ^  above),  upon 
WHICH  THE  Three  Plantar  Eminences  depend,  as  seen  after  Removal  of  the 
Plantar  Fascia.  Of  this  Latter,  the  Middle  Portion  only  at  the  Back  of  the 
Sole  has  been  retained,  in  so  far  as  it  gives  Origin  to  the  Muscles.  Abductor 
Hallucis  Muscle;  Flexor  Brevis  Hallucis  Muscle;  Flexor  Brevis  Digitorum  Pedis 
Muscle  {see  note  -  above);  Flexor  Brevis  Minimi  Digiti  Pedis  Muscle;  Abductor  Minimi 
Digiti  Pedis  Muscle.     Right  Foot,  extended.     Plant.ar  Aspect. 

The  sheath  of  the  flexor  tendons  of  the  toes  (va.ijinal  ligament)  has  been  opened  longitudinally  in  the 
second  and  third  toes,  but  in  the  others  has  been  left  intact. 


Musculi  pedis — Muscles  of  the  foot. 


THE   MUSCLES   OF   THE   LOWER  EXTREMITY 


377 


Tendon  of  the  tibialis  posticus  muscle 
Tendon  of  the  fiexor  longus  digltorum 
pedis  muscle' 
Tendon  of  the  flexor  longus  hallucis  muscle 


Tendon  of  the  tibialis  anticus  muscle 

Tendinous  slip  passing  from  the  tendon  of 

the  flexor  longus  hallucis  muscle  to  that  of 

the  flexor  longus  digitorum  pedis  muscle 

Junclura  ttiulinis  m.  flexoris  hallucis  longi 

cum  m.  ilcxorc  digitorum  lon^*^ 

Abductor  hallucis  muscle  ithe  proximal 
portion  of  which  has  been  cut  away  I 
M.  aliductor  hallucis 
Flexor  brevis  hallucis  muscle 
M.  llcxor  hallucis  brcvib 


Origin  of  the  abductor  hallucis  muscle 

.  Origin  of  the  flexor  brevis  digitorum 
pedis  muscle- 


Origin  of  the  abductor  minimi  digiti 
pedis  muscle 

Long  plantar  ligament 
Lig.  plantare  Ionium 


Tendon  of  the  peroneus  longus  muscle 

.Flexor  accessorius  muscle 
M    ijuadralus  j^lanta; 


Abductor  minimi  digiti  pedis  muscle 

""'M.  abductor  di^ili  iiiiinti 
Flexor  brevis  minimi  digiti  pedis  muscle  ( 1 1 
.—  Dorsal  interosseous  muscle 
M.  iiucrussuus  dorsalis 


Lumbricales  muscles 
'^.Mm   lumbricales 


Tendons  of  the  flexor  brevis  digi- 
torum pedis  muscle    divided  and 
tiuned  forwards) 


(i)  M.  dcxor  digili  quiiui  brevis 


*  Or  Jtixor perforans  muscle. 


'  Ox  Jtcxor pcr/oratus  muscle. 


Fig 


626. — Second  Lavkk  oi-  Tin-:  Muscles  oi-  the  Soli;  with  the  Tendons  ok  the  Deep 
PosTEKioK  Muscles  of  the  Leg,  as  seen  after  the  Partial  Ricmoval  of  the  Muscles 
OF  THE  First  Layer:  Tendon  of  the  Flexor  Longus  Digitorum  Pedis  Muscle  {sec 
note  ^  above)  AND  its  Division  into  Four  Tendons  passing  to  the  Four  Smaller  Toes; 
Flexor  Accessorius  (Quadratus  Plant.e)  and  Lumbricales  Muscles  ;  Tendon  of  the 
Flexor  Longus  Hallucis  Muscle  and  its  Slip  to  the  Tendon  of  the  Flexor  Longus 
Digitorum  Pedis  Muscle;  Lnsertion  of  the  Tibialis  Anticus  and  Tibialis  Posticus 
Muscles;  Flexor  Brevis  Hallucis  Muscle;  Flexor  Brevis  Minimi  Digiti  Pedis 
Muscle.     Right  Foot. 


Musculi  pedis—  Muscles  of  the  foot. 


48 


378 


THE  MUSCLES   OF   THE   LOWER   EXTREMITY 


Posterior  process  of  the  astragalus   \ 

Processus  posterior  tali 
Tendon  and  synovial  sheath  of  the  tendon  — 
of  the   flexor   longus    digitorum    pedis 
muscle' —Tendo   at  vagina  tendinis   m. 
flexoris  digitorum  longi 
Tendon  and  synovial  sheath  of  the— ■ 
tendon  of  the  tibialis  posticus  muscle 
Tendo  et  vagina  tendinis  m.  tibialis 
posterioris 


Tendon  of  the  tibialis  anticus  muscle 

Subtendinous  bursa  of  the  tibialir 

anticus  muscle- 

Bursa  subtendinea  m.  tibialis 

anterioris 

Flexor  brevis  hallucis  muscle  ■ 
M.  tlexor  hallucis  brevis 

Abductor  hallucis  muscle  (the  proximal 
portion  having  been  removed) 


Tendon  and  synovial  sheath  of  the  tendon  of  the  flexor 
longus  hallucis  muscle 
/     Tendo  et  vagina  tendinis  m.  flexoris  hallucis  longi 


Flexor  accessorius  muscle  (of  which  all  but 

'the  proximal  extremity  has  been  cut  away) 

M.  quadratus  plant;e 


Long  plantar  ligament 

Lig.  plantare  lungum 


Synovial  sheath  of  the  tendons  of  the  peroneus 

longus  and  peroneus  brevis  muscle 
\'agina  tenJinuni  mm.  peronreoruni  communis 

Tendon  of  the  peroneus  longus  muscle 
Plantar  synovial  sheath  of  the  tendon  of  the 

peroneus  longus  muscle 
Vagina  tendinis  m.  peronaji  longi  plantaris 


Adductor  obliquus  hallucis  muscle 

M   adductor  hallucis  (caput  obliquum) 

Interosseous  muscles 

Mm    interossei 

'Opponens  minimi  digiti  pedis  muscle''  ( i 
Flexor  brevis  minimi  digiti  pedis  muscle-' 

AI    flexor  disiti  quinti  brevis 
Adductor  transversus  hallucis  muscle  (2) 

Tendon  of  the  abductor  minimi  digiti 
pedis  muscle 
,. Transverse  metatarsal  ligament  (plantar 
distal  intermetatarsal  ligaments)  (3) 
Vaginal  ligaments 
Li^g.  vagmalia 


(0  M.  opponens  di^ili  quinti 

(2)  M.  adductor  hallucis  (caput  transversum) 

(3)  l.igg.  capituloruil  transversa 

I  Or  Jlexor pcr/orans  muscle.  _     .  . 

=  The  subtcntiinous  Intrsa  of  the  tibialis  anticus  muscle  is  situate  beneath  the  tendon  close  to  its  insertion.— Tr. 

3  See  note  3  to  p.  364. 

Fig.  627.— Third  Layer  of  the  Muscles  of  the  Sole  :  M.  Adductor  Hallucis,  Caput 
Obliquum  et  Caput  Transversum,  or,  according  to  English  Anatomists,  Adductor 
Obliquus  Hallucis  and  Adductor  Transversus  Hallucis  Muscles;  Flexor  Brevis 
Hallucis  Muscle  ;  Flexor  Brevis  Minimi  Digiti  Pedis  and  Opponens  Minimi  Digiti 
Pedis  Muscles  (see  note  ^  to  p.  364).  Synovial  Sheaths  of  the  Tendons  of  the 
Tibialis  Posticus,  Flexor  Longus  Digitorum  Pedis,  Flexor  Longus  Hallucis,  and 
Peroneus  Longus  Muscles.  Subtendinous  Bursa  of  the  Tibialis  Anticus  Muscle. 
Right  Foot. 

The  vaginal  ligriments  of  the  toes  have  been  opened,  and  their  connexion  with  the  transverse  meta- 
tarsal ligament  (plantar  distal  intermetatarsal  ligaments)  is  displayed. 


Musculi  pedis — Muscles  of  the  foot. 


THE   MUSCLES   OF   J  HE  LOWER   EXTREME!  Y 


379 


Tendon  of  the  flexor  longus  hallucis  muscle.% 
(distal  portion  cut  awaj'  V 

Tendon  of  the  flexor  longus  digitorum  pedis    > 
muscle   distal  portion  cut  away 

Subtendinous  bursa  of  the  tibialis 
posticus  muscle'  (i) 
Tendon  of  the  tibialis  posticus  muscle  (divided, 
and  the  distal  extremity  turned  forwards 


Flexor  brevis  hallucis  muscle   proximal 
extremity,  turned  backwards 


Sesamoid  bones 
Ossa  sesamoidca" 


Flexor  brevis  hallucis  muscle  (distal  ^ 
extremity,  turned  forwards 


(i)  Rursa  subtendinea  m.  tibialis  postcrioris 


Flexor  accessorius  muscle  (of  which 

all  but  the  proximal  extremity  has 

been  cut  away) 

iM    quadratus  plania; 


Long  plantar  ligament 

l.ig.  plaiitare  longum 


Tendon  of  the  peroneus  longus  muscle 


Plantar  interosseous  muscles 

Mm.  intern'^sei  pl-intarcs 

Opponens  minimi  digiti  pedis  muscle-  {2) 

,Dorsal  interosseous  muscles 

.Mm.  interossei  dorsales 


(3)  M.  oppnnens  digiti  quinti 


1  The  subtendinous  imrsa  of  the  tibiaUs  posticus  muscic  is  situate  bcncntb  the  tendon  close  to  its  inscrticn. — Tr. 
,'  Sec  note  1  to  p   364. 

Fig.  628. — Fourth  or  Deepest  Layer  oi-  the  Muscles  of  the  Sole,  as  seen  after  the 
Removal  of  the  Flexor  Brevis  Hallucis,  Adductor  Obliquus  Hallucis,  Adductor 
Transversus  Hallucis,  and  Flexor  Brevis  Minimi  Digiti  Pedis  Muscles:  Plantar 
and  Dorsal  Interosseous  Muscles.  Relation  of  the  Insertion  of  the  Two  Bellies 
OF  the  Flexor  Brevis  Hallucis  Muscle  to  the  Sesamoid  Bones  on  the  Plantar 
Surface  of  the  Mktatarsoi'halangeal  Articulation  oi-  the  Great  Toe.  Subtendinous 
Bursa  of  tiii:  Tiiuaiis  Posticus  Muscles.     Kkiht  Foot. 

In  order  to  deinonstrate  the  course  of  the  tendon  of  the  peroneus  longus  muscic  through  llie  sole  of 
the  foot  and  the  insertion  oj  this  tendon  into  tlie  outer  side  of  the  tuberosity  of  the  first  meta- 
tarsal bone,  the  anterior  portions  of  the  lony  plantar  ligament  have  been  removed. 


Musculi  pedis — Muscles  of  the  foot. 


48—2 


380 


THE  MUSCLES   OF   THE   LOWER  EXTREMITY 


Flexor  brevis  hallucis  muscle^,, 
(outer  belly) 
M.  flexor  liallucis  brevis 
(caput  laterale) 

Flexor  brevis  hallucis  muscle  (inner  belly  )_^ 
M.  flexor  hallucis  brevis  (caput  mediale)     ~ 
Intermetatarsophalangeal  burs8e,gj,_ 
Bursae  intermetatarsophalangeae    '■" 


Bursas  of  the  lumbricales  muscles  of  the  foot'  '' 
Bursae  mm.  lumbricalium  pedis 


Lumbricales  muscles 

Mm.  lumbricales 


Adductor  transversus  hallucis  muscle 
M.  adductor  hallucis  (caput  transversum) 


Fig.  629. — BuRS.91  of  the  Lumbricales  Muscles  of  the  Foot  and  Intermetatarsophalan- 
geal BuRS,?i,  as  seen  from  the  Plantar  Surface.  The  Burs^  have  been  opened. 
First  Three  Toes  of  the  Right  Foot,  widely  separated. 


Dorsal  aponeurosis  of  the  extensor  tendons 


Vincula  tendinum' 


Dorsal  interosseous  muscle 

M.  interosseus  dorsalis 


Lumbricalis  muscle 

M,  lumbricaHs 


Intermetatarsophalangeal  bursa,,-'' 
Bursa  intermetatarsophalangca 

Bursa  of  the  lumbricalis  muscle'  / 
Bursa  m.  luuibricahs 


'y  Tendon  of  the  flexor  longus  digitorum 
pedis  muscle' 
Tendon  of  the  flexor  brevis  digitorum  pedis  muscle' 


The  iursa  0/  the  tumbricaks  muscles  of  the  foot  are  situnle  between  the  tendons  of  the  lumbricales  muscles  and  the  bases  of  the 
proximal  phalanges. — Tij. 

=  The  arrajigement  of  the  fie.xor  tendons  of  the  toes,  with  their  vijicula,  closely  resembles  that  of  the  tle.\or  tendons  of  the  fingers.  See 
Fig.  580  on  p.  331,  and  note  '  on  that  page. — Tr. 

^  Ox /lexorper/orans  mvix\t.  4  Oryi'tMor/c^/^ru/iM  muscle. 

Fig.  630. — Distal  Extremities  of  the  Extensor  and  Flexor  Tendons  of  the  Second  Toe 
OF  THE  Right  Foot,  seen  from  the  Inner  Side.  Dorsal  Aponeurosis  of  the  Extensor 
Tendons.  Bursa  of  the  Lumbricalis  Muscle  of  the  Foot  and  Intermetatarso- 
phalangeal Bursa.     Vincula  Tendinum. 


Musculi  pedis— Muscles  of  the  foot. 


y. 


SUPPLEMENT    TO    THE    MYOLOGY 


CANALIS    INGUINALIS, 
THE    INGUINAL    CANAL, 


AND 


CANALIS    FEMORALIS, 
THE    FEMORAL    OR    CRURAL    CANAL 


382 


INGUINAL    CANAL    AND   FEMORAL    CANAL 


Superficial  epigastric  vein 

Vena  epigastrica  superficial  is  ^ 
Superficial  fascia  of  the  abdomen 

Fascia  super&cialis  abdominis 


Superficial  circumflex  iliac  vein 
Vena  circumflexa  ilium  supeificialis 

Superior  superficial  inguinal  lymphatic 
\  ,     glands — Lymphoglandulae  inguinales 


Poupart's  ligament 
(superficial  femoral  arch)-- 
Lig.  inguinale  (I'ouparti) 

Cribriform  fascia 

Fascia  cribrosa    ^ 

Internal  or 
long  saphenous  vein 

Vena  saphena  magna 
Deep  inguinal  lymphatic- 
gland 
Lymphoglandula 
subinguinalis  profunda 
Intercolumnar  or  spermatic 
fascia' 
F'ascia  cremasterica 
(Cooperi) 
False  suspensory  ligament 
of  the  penis- 
Lig    fundi I'urme  penis 
Deep  fascia  of  the  thigh 
or  fascia  lata 

Scrotum-' 


Lymphatic  vessels 

Vasa  hmpbatica 

Inferior  superficial 

inguinal  lymphatic 

glands- 

Lymphoglandula;  sub- 

unguinales  superficiales 


Superficial  fascia 

Fascia  superficialis 

Internal  or 
long  saphenous  vein 
Vena  saphena  magna 

Lymphatic  vessels 
Vasa  lymphatica 


1  Fnscia  Craiiasterica  {Coopert). — This  is  not  Xh^  cremasteric  fascia  of  English  anatomists,  nor  is  it  t\\^ /ascia  pro/>ria  of  Astley 
Cooper,  but  the  intercolumnar  or  spermatic  fascia.     See  note  i  to  p.  501  in  Part  IV. — Tb. 

2  The  susf'ensory  ligament  of  the  penis  consists  of  two  parts :  a  sufierfcia ',  the  fa^se  supeitsory'h'^ament ;  and  a  deefi,  the  tr:u 
suspensory  ligament,  "The  former,  called  by  the  author  ligamentiDu  funk  forme  penis,  when  artificially  separated  from  the  fascia  of  the 
abdomen  and  the  dorsum  of  the  penis  (of  which  it  forms  a  part),  is  a  flattened  piece  of  connective  tissue  with  edges  directed  laterally  and 
surfaces  directed  forwards  and  backwards,  respectively.  The  latter,  called  by  the  author  iigamenium  sitspensorium  penis,  when  dissected 
out,  has  an  anterior  free  edge,  a  postero-superior  edge  attached  to  the  front  of  the  pubic  symphysis,  and  a  postero-inferior  edge  attached 
to  the  dorsum  of  the  penis,  whilst  its  surfaces  look  to  right  and  to  left  (see  Fig.  632).  The  false  suspensory  ligament  contains  many  yellow 
elastic  fibres  ;  the  true  corfrists  of  while  fibres  only. — Tk. 

3  Often  called  the  fctnoral  lympliatic  glands. 

Fig.  631. — Superficial  Fascia  of  the  Anterior  Wall  of  the  Abdomen,  with  the  False 
Suspensory  Ligament  of  the  Penis  (Ligamentum  Fundiforme  Penis)  and  the  Cre- 
masteric Fascia  (Fascia  Cremasterica  Cooperi)  covering  the  Spermatic  Cord.  In 
the  Portion  of  the  Left  Thigh  from  which  the  Skin  has  been  removed  we  see 
the  Superficial  Fascia  with  the  Superficial  Inguinal  and  Femoral  Lymphatic  Glands 
AND  the  Subcutaneous  Veins.  In  the  Right  Thigh  the  Superficial  Fascia,  the 
Superficial  Lymphatic  Glands,  and  the  Subcutaneous  Veins,  have  been  removed,  and 
the  Fascia  Lata  and  the  Cribriform  Fascia  are  laid  bare. 


Subcutaneous  Structures  of  the   Hypogastric  and  Inguinal  Regions. 


INGUINAL    CANAL    AND   FEMORAL    CANAL 


383 


Linea  alba 

I-iiiua  alba 

Sheath  of  the  rectus  abdominis  muscle  \ 

anterior  layer)  ' 

Vagina  m    recti  abdominis 

(Lamina  anterior! 


Aponeurosis  of  the  external  oblique 

muscle  of  the  abdomen 
/  External  oblique  muscle  of  the 

'  ;  abdomen 

M.  obliquus  externus 
abdominis 


I  Intercolumnar  fibres 

I  I'lbr.i-  col  late  rales* 


External  or  superficial 

abdominal  ring' 

AnnuUis  ingiilnalis 

subcutaneus 

Femoral  or  crural  septum     >. 

Septum  lemorale  (Clo<jueti, 

Saphenous  opening  - 

rossa  ovalis 


Triangular  fascia- 

Lig.  inguinale  retlexum 

(Collesi) 

Upper  or  internal  pillar 
Crus  superius 

Lower  or  external  pillai 

Crus  inferius 

Spine  of  the  pubis 

luKrculuin  pubicum 
True  Buppensory  ligament 

of  the  penis' 
Lig.  suspcnsurmm  pcnij 


Poupart's  ligament 
(superficial  femoral  arch) 

I-if^.  int^uiiuile  (IViuparti) 

Intercolumnar  fibres 

l-'ilini-  intercruralcs* 

Superior  cornu'' 

Cornu  superius 

Lymphatic  gland  in  the 

femoral  ring  ( "gland  of 
RosenmuUer) 

Femoral  or  crural  sheath 

\'af;ina  wisurum 

Falciform  border 

Mar;;t)  ialcifLirtnis 

Pectineal  fascia" 

l-"asria  [ec tinea 

Inferior  cornu 

Cornu  ir.ferius 

Intercolumnar  or  sper- 
matic fascia' 

Fascia  cuii,.i-uri.  .i  (Cix)iKii) 
Internal  or 

long  saphenous  vein 

Vena  sapliena  magna 

Deep  fascia  of  the  thigh, 

or  fascia  lata  i  superficial 

layer/'' 

Fascia  lata  (lamina 

superficialis) 


<  Or  cxtirnat  in^iinai  afiirture. 

3  The  triani;ular/asciat  or  ii^^amcntum  tHt^inate  rfJJfxiim  ColUsiy  consists  of  f  omc  of  the  fibres  of  Oimbcrnat's  Iif;aincnt  and  of  the 
outer  pillar  of  the  cxttrrnal  abdominal  ring  which  pass  upwards  and  inwards  Iwrieath  the  spetmatic  cord  in  fri>nt  of,  and  incorporated  with, 
the  antrrior  layer  of  the  slicath  nf  the  rectus  abdominis  muscle  to  rc;ich  the  middle  line,  where  they  interlace  with  the  fibres  of  the  upiv-tsite 
side.  The  development  of  litis  fascia  is  \,iriable,  being  inversely  proportii)nal  with  that  of  the  pyramidalis  muscle,  of  the  sheath  ol  which 
it  forms  a  specialized  part. — Tk. 

3  Sec  note  '  to  p.  382. 

4  /HUrtoltiiiiU'tr  FHires. — The  author  distinguishes  the  lower  inUrnttumnay  Jibres,  those  which  cross  the  gap  between  the  pillars  of 
the  external  or  superficial  alidominal  ring,  oa  JilrtrinUtvurtUi-s  ;  whilst  those  inU-rcatumnar  j/itfrts  which  are  silu.lte  entirely  above  the 
ling,  he  caXh  Jilrir  collatcralcs, 

5  See  note  '  to  p.  349.  *>  Or  /luhic  portion  0/ the /(ticin  lata.  7  Sec  note  <  to  p.  38a.  8  g^e  note  »  lo  p.  349. 

Fig.  632. — Is  THE  Hypogastric  Regio.v,  by  tiii:  Remov.vl  ov  the  Supi;rfici.\i.  Fascia,  thic  Aponeurosis 
OF  the  External  Oblique  Muscle  of  the  Abdomen  and  the  Anticriou  Layer  of  the  Sheath  of  the 
Rectus  Abdo.minis  Muscle  have  been  laid  bare.  In  the  Inguinal  Region,  on  the  Right  Side 
OF  the  Body,  vvk  see  the  External  or  Suterficial  .'Vbdominal  Rim;  (External  Inguinal  Aperture) 
WITH   its  Two   Pillars,    Upper  or    Internal,   and    Lower   or    External,    respectively,   which    are 

FULLY    displayed    BY    THE    ReMOVAI.    OF   THE    SPERMATIC   CoRD  ;    ON   THE    LeFT   SiDK,   ON    THE   OTHER    HaND, 

THE  Spermatic  Cord  with  its  Coverings  has  been  left  intact,  and  the  External  .Abdominal 
Ring  is,  consequently,  closed.     In  the  Subinguinal  Region,  the  Cribriform  Fascia  having  been 

REMOVED,  THE  SAPHENOUS  OPENING  (FoSSA  OvAl.IS,  FeMORAL  ApERTURE  OF  THE  FeMORAL  OR  CrURAL 

Canal)  is  laid  bare,  with  its  Falciform  Border  and  Superior  and  Inferior  Cornua,  on  the  Left 
Side  also  with  the  Internal  or  Long  Saphenous  Vein  and  the  F'emoral  or  Crural  Sheath, 
whilst  on  the  Right  Sim:  the  I-'emoral  .\rtery  and  Vein  have  been  removed. 

The  relation  of  the  external  abdominal  ring  lo  Ihe  s|icrin.tlic  cord  anti  10  the  saphenous  opening  is  lo  be  noted. 


Annulus  inguinalis  subcutaneus-  External  or  superficial  abdominal  ring. 
Fossa  ovalis-  Saphenous  opening. 


384 


INGUINAL    CANAL    AND   FEMORAL    CANAL 


Poupart's  ligament  (superficial  femoral  arch* 

Lig.  inguinale  (Pouparti)  1 

External  oblique  muscle  of  the  abdomen  i 

M.  obliquus  externiis  abdominis 


Umbilicus  - 


Sheath  of  the  rectus 
abdominis  muscle 


Linea  alba  —  • 


Triangular  fascia 

Li;,',  inguinale 
reflexum  (CoUesi 


Upper  or  internal  pillar  ' 
of  the  external  or  super- 
ficial abdominal  ring- 
Crus  auperius  annuli 
inguinalis  subcutanei 


Lower  or  external  pillar  of  the  ex- ' 
ternal  or  superficial  abdominal  ring- 

Crus  inferius  annuli  inguinalis 
subcutanei 

*  See  note  -  lo  p. 


Anterior  superior  spine  of 
the  ilium 
I  Spina  iliaca  anterior  superior 


Internal  oblique 

muscle  of  the 

abdomen 


Aponeurosis  of  the  ex 

ternal  oblique  muscle 

of  the  abdomen 


'  Cremaster  muscle 

M,  cremaster 

■  Spermatic  cord 

Funiculus  spermaticus 


Ilioinguinal  nerve 

N.  ilioinguinalis 


Or  external  ingliiital  aperture. 


Fig.  633. — Inner  Portion  of  the  Left  Inguin.al  Canal,  from  the  External  or  Superficial 
Abdominal  Ring  (External  Inguinal  Aperture)  to  the  Aperture  for  the  Spermatic 
Cord  in  the  Internal  Oblique  Muscle  of  the  Abdomen,  displayed  by  the  Removal  of 
a  Portion  of  the  External  Oblique  Muscle  of  the  Abdomen.  Continuity  of  the 
Cremaster  Muscle  with  the  Lowermost  Fasciculi  of  the  Internal  Oblique  Muscle 
of  the  Abdomen.     Triangular  Fascia,  or  Ligamentum  Inguinale  Reflexum  (Collesi). 

The  lower  part  of  the  aponeurosis  of  the  external  oblique  muscle  of  the  abdomen,  together  with  the 
upper  or  internal  pillar  of  the  external  abdominal  ring,  has  been  turned  downwards. 


Canalis  inguinalis     Inguinal  canal. 


INGUINAL    CANAL    AND   FEMORAL    CANAL 


385 


External  oblique  muscle  of  the  abdomea 

M.  oliliquus  cMcrnus  al  d(.)minis  . 

Internal  oblique  muscle  of  the  abdomen 

M.  obliquiis  mtcrnui  al'iiominis  /  ; 


Umbilicus 


Sheath  of  the  rectus 
abdominis  muscle 


Linea  alba 


Tendinous  inter- 
section 
Inscriplio  tendinea 


Rectus  abdominis 
muscle 


Sheath  of  the  rectus 

abdominis  muscle 

(anterior  layer) 

N'ayiiia  ni.  recti 

abdominis  (lamina 

anterior) 


Transversalis  fascia 
Tascia  transversalis 


Triangular  fascia' 

(divided  i 

Lin.  inguinale 

reflcxum  (Collesi) 

Pyramidalis  musclo 
M    pyramidalis 


Transversalis 
abdominis  muscle 


\  Internal  oblique  muscle  of  the 
abdomen  turned  downwards) 
M.  obliquus  intcnius  abdominis 

\  Transversalis  fascia 
Fascia  transversalis 
\  Internal  or  deep  abdominal  ring-' 
Annuius  ingninalis  abdominalis 
Aponeurosis  of  the  external  oblique  muscle 
of  the  abdomen  (turned  downwards) 
Aj-ioneiirosis  muscnli  ol)lic]iii  exlcriii  abdomini 
Spermatic  cord — rnniculus  spcnnaticus 
•  ^(  ,  Musculus  interfoveolaris- 

Extemal  or  superficial         ^  .,  Cremaster  muscle 

abdominal  ring'  \  M   cremaster 

Annuius  inKuinalis  subcutaneus 

'  See  note  3  to  p.  383.  ^  Sec  note  3  to  p.  275.  '  Or  infernal  inguhtal  n/-erturc.  4  Or  twtcrttnt  inxviiutl  afirture. 

Fig.  6j4. — Oitkk  Portion  of  tiif  Left  Inguinal  Canal,  from  tui:  Aperturk  iok  the 
Spermatic  Cord  in  the  Internal  Obliouf,  Muscle  of  the  Abdomen  to  the  Internal 
OR  Deep  Aiidominal  Ring  (Internal  Inguinal  Aperture),  displayed  by  the  Removal 
OF  A  Portion  of  the  Internal  Oblique  Muscle  of  the  Abdomen.  Musculus  Inter- 
foveolaris  {sec  nole  ^  lo  p.  275),  the  Fibres  of  which  lie  in  Front  of  the  Ligamentum 
Interfoveolare  or  Ligament  <>f  Hesselbach  (sec  tiotc  '  lo  p.  387),  which  is  itself  not 
defined  in  the  Figure. 


Canalis  inguinalis— Inguinal  canal. 


49 


386 


INGUINAL    CANAL    AND   FEMORAL    CANAL 


Anterior  crural  or  femoral  nerve 

N.  femoralis 

Iliac  fascia 

Fascia  iliaca 


Parietal  peritoneum 

/  Peiitonseum  parietale 

Epigastric  fold' 

'  Plica  epigastrica 


External  inguinal  pouch 

Fovea  inguinaiis 
lateralis 


Iliopsoas  muscle  / 

M.  iliopsoas  /    /  / 

Spermatic  vessels  •  /  f 

Vasa  spermatica    /  / 

External  iliac  artery 

A.  iliaca  externa  /  / 

External  iliac  vein  / 

V.  iliaca  externa  / 

Pubovesical  fold 
I'lica  pubovesicalis 


*«8|f     Internal  inguinal  pouch' 
\        \        \  ■.  Fovea  inguinaiis  medialis 

\         \  ^Hypogastric  or  external  umbilical 

\  \  fold — I'lica  umbilicalis  lateralis 

\        \  '  Urachal  or  median  umbilical  fold' 

\         \  I'lica  umbilicalis  media 

\         \        Supravesical  pouch' — Fovea  supravesicalis 
\  Urinary  bladder 

\         Vesica  urinaria 

Lateral  false  ligament  of  the  bladder 
or  transverse  vesical  fold 
Plica  vesicalis  transversa 


1  By  some  authorities  the  space  between  the  urachal  fold  and  the  hypogastric  fold  (called  here  supraz-csical  f>oucJi)  is  termed  internal 
inguinal  f'OKch  ;  and  the  space  between  the  hypogastric  fold  and  the  epigastric  fold  (called  here  internal  inguinal  f'onch')  i^  termed  middle 
inguinal  pouch.  The  author's  nomenclature  is  to  be  preferred.  The  epigastric  fold,  on  the  outer  side,  and  a  line  drawn  on  the  inner 
surface  of  the  anterior  abdominal  wall  corresponding  to  the  outer  margin  of  the  rectus  abdominis  muscle,  on  the  inner  side,  form  the  sides, 
while  Poupart's  ligament  forms  the  base,  of  a  triangular  space,  usually  called  the  triangle  of  Hessclbach,  through  which  a  direct  inguinal 
hernia  passes. — Tr. 

2  Also  called  the  superior  false  ligament^  or  suspensory  ligament^  o/  t/ie  bladdey. 

Fig.  635. — Lower  Portion  of  the  Anterior  Wall  of  the   Abdomen   seen  from  Behind, 

SHOWING    THE    PARIETAL    PERITONEUM    WITH    ITS    FOLDS    AND     POUCHES  :     PlICA     UmBILICALIS 

Lateralis,  the  Hypogastric  or  External  Umbilical  Fold;  Plica  Umbilicalis  Media, 
THE  Urachal  or  Median  Umbilical  Fold  (see  note  -  above) ;  Plica  Epigastrica,  the 
Epigastric  Fold.  Fove^  Inguinales,  Lateralis  et  Media,  the  External  and 
Internal  Inguinal  Pouches;  Fovea  Supravesicalis,  the  Supravesical  Pouch.  Plica 
Vesicalis  Transversa,  the  Lateral  False  Ligament  of  the  Bladder  or  Transverse 
Vesical  Fold.    Plic.e  Pubovesicales,  the  Pubovesical  Folds. 

(Coronal  section  through  the  lower  part  of  the  trunk.) 


Plicae  umbilicales— The  umbilical  folds.— Foveae  inguinales — The  inguinal  pouches. 


INGUINAL   CANAL   AND  FEMORAL    CANAL 


387 


Rectus  abdominis  nuscle 


TTmbilicas 


Semilunar  fold  of  Douglas 
I.inea  scmicirculans 
(Douglasi) 
Transversalis  abdominis 

muscle 
M.  Iransversus  abdominis 

Iliac  fascia 

Fascia  iliaca 


/ 


Urachus  or  'median  umbilical  ligament^ 

umliilicale  medium 
"External  umbilical  ligament' 
■Lig.  umbilicale  latcrale 

/Deep  or  inferior  epigastric  artery^ 
/  A.  epigastrica  inferior 

'Internal  or  deep  abdominal 
rin^"- 

Annu!iis  ingiiinalis  alfdoniinalis 

,  Spermatic  vessels 
\asa  spermatica 


Ligament  of  Hesselbach' 

Lip.  interfov  eolare 

(Hesselbachi) 


Ligament  of  Henle 

I'alx  (aponeurotica) 

inguinalis 


Common  iliac  artery 
A.  iliaca  communis 
Oooimon  iliac  vein—  V.  iliaca  communis         / 
Internal  iliac  artery-     A.  hypoRastrica'' 

Internal  iliac  vein- — V.  hypogastrica 


Vas  deferens 
Ductus  deferens 


:         1  MJreter— Ureter 

Ampulla  of  the  vas  deferens 

Ampulla  ductus  deferentis 
Urinary  bladder — Vesica  urinaria 
Superior  vesical  artery     A.  vesicalis  superior 


■  Thr  conjoined  tendon  of  the  internal  oblique  muscle  of  the  abdomen  and  the  transversalis  abdominis  muscle  is  often  divided,  or  can 
be  readily  divided  by  dissection,  into  two  parts.  The  outer  of  these  is  called  the  ligament  o/  I/rssell'acli,  or  ligameKluiii  intcr/mtolarc, 
and  the  inner  is  known  a-s  the  iigainrnt  flf  Htn'f,  ox /aix  inguinalis. — Tr. 

»  The  inUrnat  iliac  arterj'  and  vein  are  in  the  Continental  nomenclature  known  as  liy/iogaslric  artery  and  vein  respectively.— Tk. 

3  The  ^median  umbilical  tigami-nt  consists  of  a  fibrous  cord,  the  urachus,  extending  from  the  apex  of  the  bladder  to  th-i  umbilicus^ 
and,  when  covcre<l  by  peritoneum,  constitutes  the  urachal  or  median  umbilical/old.     Sec  Fig.  635,  p.  386.— Tk. 

*  The  'external  urnt'ilical  ligament  consists  of  a  fibrous  cord,  the  remains  of  the  oblitcr.itcd  hyp^igastric  artery,  extending  from  the 
superior  vesical  artery  (close  to  its  origin  from  the  internal  iliac  artery)  near  the  side  of  the  bladder  and  along  the  anterior  wall_  of  the 
abdomen  to  the  umbilicus,  and,  when  covered  by  peritoneum,  constitutes  the  hypogastric  or  external  umbilical  /old.  Sec  Fig.  635, 
p.  386.— Tr. 

5  The  deep  or  inferior  epigastric  artery  extends  from  the  external  iliac  arterj'  along  the  anterior  wall  of  the  alxlomen,  external  to 
and  parallel  with  the  obliterated  hj'poga.stric  artery,  and,  when  covered  with  peritoneum,  constitutes  the  epigastric  /old.  See  Fig.  635, 
p.  386.— Tr.  ' 

'^  Ot  internal  inguinal  aperture. 

Fig.  636. — Lower  Portion  of  the  Anterior  Wall  of  the  Ahdomen  and  the  Anterior 
Wall  of  the  Pelvis,  with  the  Urinary  Bladder,  seen  from  Behind,  the  Parietal 
Peritoneum  and  the  Transversalis  Fascia  having  been  removed.  Ligament  of 
Hesselbach  (Ligamentlm  Interfoveoi  are);  'Median  (sec  note  ^  above)  and  'External  (sec 
iidlc  *  above)  Umbilical  Ligaments;  Deep  ok  Inferior  Epigastric  Artery.  Internal  or 
Deep  Abdominal  Ring  (Internal  Inguinal  Aperture).  Ligament  of  Henle  (Falx 
Aponeurotica  Inguinalis).     Vas  Deferens. 


*Ligamenta  umbilicalia  -'Umbilical  ligaments. 


49—2 


388 


INGUINAL    CANAL    AND   FEMORAL    CANAL 


Internal  or  deep  abdominal 

ring' — Annulus    inguinalis 
abdominalis 
Spermatic  vessels 
Vasa  spermatica 
Vas  deferens 
Ductus  deferens 

Abemethy's  fascia' 

External  iliac  artery 
A.  iliaca  externa 
External  iliac  vein 

V.  iliaca  externa 

Parietal  peritoneum 

Peritonaeum  parietale 

One  of  the  external  iliac 

lymphatic  glands 

Lymph  oglandula 

liypogastrica 


Transversalis  fascia — Fascia  transversalis 


\     Ligament  of  Henle- 
iV    Falx  (aponeuretica) 


(apone 
inguinalis 


Adminiculum  lineffi 
albae 


Femoral  or  crural  septum      / 
Septum  femorale  (Cloqueti) 

Anomalous  obturator  artery' 

A.  obturatoria  anomala 


Pubic  symphysis 

Symphysis  ossium 
pubis 

Lymphatic  gland  in  the  femoral  ring 
( *gland  of  RoseumuUer) 
External  iliac  lymphatic  plexus 
I'lexus  lymphatic'is  iliacus  externus 


'  Anomalous  OMuraior  Artery. — The  normal  origin  of  the  obturator  artery  is  from  the  internal  iliac  artery,  and  it  sendsan  anastomotic 
branch  to  the  deep  epigastric  artery  ;  but  quite  frequently  this  anastomotic  branch  becomes  the  main  trunk,  so  that  the  obturator  artery- 
arises,  as  here,  from  the  external  iliac  in  common  with  the  deep  epigastric.  When  the  anomalous  obturator  artery  takes  the  course  shown 
in  the  figure,  directly  downwards  across  the  internal  iliac  vein  to  reach  the  obturator  canal,  the  anomaly  is  of  little  practical  importance  ; 
but  in  some  cases  (once  in  fifty-eight  bodies,  and  more  often  in  males  than  females)  the  anomalous  obturator  artery  courses  first  inwards, 
and  then  arches  backwards  on  the  inner  side  of  the  femoral  ring,  so  that  it  is  in  danger  of  being  cut  when  dividing  the  stricture  in  cases  of 
strangulated  femoral  hernia. — Tk. 

-  See  note  i  to  p.  387, 

3  Adminiculum  Lineee  A 11'^.— This-name  is  given  to  the  triangular  expansion  which  spreads  out  to  the  right  and  the  left  of  the  lower 
end  of  the  hnea  alba,  by  means  of  which  expansion  the  linea  alba  is  attached  on  each  side  to  the  crest  of  the  pubis  behind  the  outer  head 
of  the  rectus  abdominis  muscle. — Tr. 

4  Or  internal  inguinal  aperture. 

5  The  fascia  covering  the  external  iliac  vessels  is  known  as  Aliernetliy's/ascia.—TR. 

Fig.  637. — Region  of  the  Inguinal  Pouches,  Fove.e  Inguinales,  as  seen  after  the 
Parietal  Peritoneum  has  been  stripped  from  the  Abdominal  Wall.  Left  Side  of 
THE  Body.  Rel.\tion  of  the  Transversalis  Fascia  to  the  Internal  or  Deep  Abdominal 
Ring  (Internal  Inguinal  Aperture)  and  to  the  Femoral  or  Crural  Ring.  Connexion 
of  the  Transversalis  Fascia  with  the  Sheath  of  the  External  Iliac  Artery  and 
Vein  {see  note  ^  above)  :  Septum  Femorale  (Cloqueti),  the  Femoral  or  Crural  Septum. 
Prolongation  of  the  Transversalis  Fascia  from  the  Internal  Abdominal  Ring 
ON  TO  the  Spermatic  Vessels  and  the  Vas  Deferens  (Infundibuliform  Fascia). 
Relations  of  the  External  Iliac   Lymphatic  Plexus  and  of  the  *Lymphatic  Gland 

OF    ROSENMULLER    TO    THE     FeMORAL     (OR    CrURAL)    RiNG,    OCCLUDED    BY    THE    FeMORAL    (oR 

Crural)  Septum. 


Abdominal  Apertures  of  the  Inguinal  and  Femoral  Canals. 


INGUINAL   CANAL   AND  FEMORAL   CANAL 


38y 


Ligament  of  Henle' — Falx  ^ 

(aponeurotica)  inguinalis 


Ligament  of  Hesselbach' — Lip; 
interfoveolare  (llcsbelbachi) 

Linea  semilunaris — Linea  semilunaris  (Spigeli) , 

Transversalis  abdominis  muscle 
M.  transvcrsus  abdominis 

Spermatic  cord — Kuniculiis  spermaticus  ■,, 

Internal  or  deep  abdominal  ricg-'' 

Annulus  inguinalis  abdominalis 

Poupart's  ligament  (superficial 
femoral  arch) 
Lij,'.  inguinale  (I'ouparti) 
Vascular  compartment 
Lacuna  vasorum 
Anterior  superior  spine  of 

the  ilium  (1) 
Deep  circumflex  iliac  - 

artery 
A.  circiimflcxa  ilium 
profunda 
Deep  or  inferior 
epigastric  artery 
A.  episastrica 
inferior 


Iliac  fascia 

I'ascia 
iliopectinea- 


Iliac  fascia 
Fascia  iliaca 


Linea  alba 

!  Rectus  abdominis  muscle 

Sheath  of  the  rectus  abdo- 
minis   muEcle   (jctttticr 
layer) 
\'a;;ina  m.  recti 

abdominis 

lamina  posterior) 

Deep  or  inferior 

epigastric  artery 

A.  c-pi,L;.istrica  inkrior 

Semilunar  fold  of 

Douglas 

Linea  semicircularis 

(Uouglasi) 


Adminiculum  lines  albsa' 


Pubic  symphysis 

\      Symphysis  ossium  pubis 
Pubovesical  pouch 
pubovesicalis 


y-A    Fovea 

i/ ...... 

r 


Superior  or  ascending  ramus 
of  the  pubis 

Kamus  superior  ossis  pubis 


External  iliac  artery 
Arteria  iliaca  externa 
External  iliac  vein 
Vena  iliaca  externa 


'  Sec  note  »  to  p.  3?7. 

4  See  note  ■  to  p. 


Gimbemat's  ligament 
Lij;   lacunare  (Gimbernati) 

Femoral  or  crural  ring 

/  Antiulus  femoralis 

Obturator  canal 

Canalis  obtnralorius 
Anomalous  obturator  artery' 
Arteria  obturatoria  anomala 


(i)  Spina  Iliaca  anterior  superior 


3  See  note  '  to  p.  390. 


5  Or  internal  Inguinal  afcrturc. 


'  See  note  3  to  p.  388. 


Fic.  638.— Annuli's  Ingiinalis  Abdominalis,  Internal  ok  Dlep  Aisdominal  Ring  (Inteknal 
Inguinal  Aperture),  and  Annulus  Femoralis,  Femoral  or  Crural  King,  laid  hare 
ON  the  Left  Side  of  the  Body  by  the  Removal  of  the  Parietal  Peritoneum  and 
the  Transversalis  Fascia;  seen  from  Behind.  Ligamentum  Interfoveolare  (Hessel- 
BACHi),  Ligament  of  Hesselbach,  and  Falx  (Aponeurotica)  Inguinalis,  Ligament  of 
Henlk.  Relation  of  the  Obturator  Artery,  which  in  this  Instance  arises  from 
the  Deep  Epigastric  Artery,  to  the  Femoral  or  Crural  Ring. 


Abdominal  Apertures  of  the  Inguinal  and  Femoral  Canals. 


390 


INGUINAL    CANAL    AND   FEMORAL    CANAL 


Anterior  superior  spine  of  the  ilium 

Spina  iliaca  anterior  bupencr 

Iliac  compa/rtmeut 

I  Kuna  miisculoium 


Iliuui        — 


Anterior  inferior  spine  of  the  ilium 

Spina  iliica  anterior  inferior 

Iliac  fascia 

,    FabCia  iliopeclinea' 

Poupart's  ligament  (superficial  femoral  arch) 
Lig.  inguinale  (Pouparti) 

^Vascular  compartment 

,.'  Lacuna  vasorum 

,  Iliopectineal  eminence 
Eminentia  iliopectinea 
Pectineal  fascia 
,/  Fascia  pectinea 

y  Gimbemat's  ligament 
Lig.  lacunare  (Gimbernati) 
Triangular  fascia^ 

\^'^    ^'^^sx^\        ''  '"'°   'ng"''^^'6  reflexum 
.« ^^^v        XV   ^  (Collesi) 

Spine  of  the  pubis 

Tnherculum 
pubicum. 


Fig.  639— Lacuna  Musculorum  et  Lacuna  Vasorum,  Iliac  Compartment  and  Vascular  Compartment. 

Seen  from  Behind. 


Anterior  superior  spine  of  the  ilium 

Spina  iliaca  anterior  superior 
Internal  oblique  muscle  of  the  abdomen 

i\l.  obliquus  internus 
abdominis 


Ilium - 


Aponeurosis  of  the  external  oblique  muscle 
'  of  the  abdomen 

Transversalis  fascia — Fascia  trans\-ersalis 

'  Anterior  crural  or  femoral  nerve — Nervus  femoralis 
jlliac  fascia — Fascia  iliopectinea' 
I  !  Poupart's  ligament  (superficial  femoral  arch) 

Lig.  inguinale  (Pouparti) 

Femoral  artery 
Arteria  femoralis 
/  Femoral  or  crural  sheath 

/  I  Vagina  \  asorum 

/  Femoral  vein 
Vena  femoralis 

Femoral  or  crural  rinj 

Annulus  femoralis 


Cut  edge  of  the  iliac  fascia  - 


Gimbernat's  ligament 
Lig  lacunare  (Gimbernati) 

Kectus  abdominis 
muscle 


Iliopsoas  muscle — M.  iliopsoas 

Iliopectineal  eminence — Eminentia  iliopectinea 


Surface  of  the  symphysis 

.  F  ci      ^vmph^■^eos 

I  Ligament  of  Henle ' (O 

E3rternal  or  superficial  abdominal 

nng-— .\iiuulu-.  incuinalis  suhculaneus 

Pubic  ligament  of  AsUey  Cooper,  or 
Cooper  s  ligament-  -Li.i;.  pubicum  (Caoppn) 
Transversalis  fascia — Fascia  transversalis 


(i)  Fal.\  (aponeurotica)  inguinalis 

»  Fascia  Iliopeclinea. — The  author  distinguishes  by  this  name  that  portion  of  the  iliac  fascia  (of  English  anatnniists)  which,  covering 
the  iliopsoas  muscle  as  it  passes  beneath  Poupart's  ligament,  forms  the  septum  between  the  iliac  cotnf'aytmeni  and  the  z'ascular  compart- 
ment of  the  space  beneath  that  ligament,  and  passing  inwards  behind  the  femoral  vessels  to  form  the  posterior  layerof  the  femoral  or  crural 
sheath  becomes  continuous  with  the  pul'ic  portion  of  the  fascia  lata  of  the  thigh,  ox  pectineal  fascia  (see  description  at  foot  of  Fig.  508), 
]).  349.     From  the  fact  that  this  portion  serves  to  connect  the  iliac  with  the  pectineal  fascia  arises  the  name  "  iliopectineal  fa.scia."— Tk. 

3  Pubic  Li^^amcnt  ofAstley  Cooper^  or  Cooper  •<  /,i^an}ent.— This  name  is  gi\  en  to  a  thickened  bundle  of  transverse  fibres  at  the  upper 
part  of  the  pectineal  fascia  along  its  attachment  to  the  innermost  portion  of  the  iliopectineal  line.  The  fibres  are  closely  connected  with, 
and  in  part  derived  from,  Gimbernat's  ligament. — Tr. 

3  See  note  '  to  p.  3S7.  4  See  note  =  to  p.  383.  5  Or  external  inguinal  aperture. 

Fig.  640.— Parts  isENE.vrii  Poupart's  Ligament,  the  Contents  of  the  Lacuna  Musculorum  or  Iliac 
Compartment  and  Lacuna  Vasculorum  or  Vascular  Compartment,  and  their  Mutual  Relations. 
Lefi'  Side;  seen  from  ISehind. 


Lacuna  musculorum,  or  iliac  compartment. — Lacuna  vasorum,   or  vascular  compartment. 


INDHX 


TO    IHE 


MYOLOGY 


AND   TO 


THE   SUPPLEMENT   ON    THE    ANATOMY    OF   HERNIA 


393 


INDEX 

TO    THE    MYOLOGY 

AND  TO  THE  SUPPLEMENT  ON  THE  ANATOMY  OF  HERNIA 

Certain  names  in  this  Index  have  an  asterisk  (•)  prefixed  ;  these,  as  more  fully  explained  in  the  Translator's  Preface,  being  terms  that  form  part  of  the 
English  nomenclature  used  in  this  work,  hut  which  are  not  commonly  employed  by  Kngltsh  anatomists.  To  other  names  a  daef^cr  (t)  is  prefixed  ;  these  are 
Latin  names  used  by  the  author  in  the  original  work,  but  not  included  in  the  oincial  nomenclature  of  the  "  Anatomischc  tjescUschalt." 


Adminicui.um  linea;  alb»,  3SS,  389 
Aiiiiulus  feiiioralis,  3S9,  390 

iuguiualis  abdominalis,  275,  276,  344,  3S5,  3S7-3S9 
subcutaiieus,  274,  ,-49,  liS:^,  385 
Antagonists,  263 
Aperture,  iuguiual,  external,  349,  383,  385 

internal,  344,  385,  387-389 
tAponcuroses    tendinuiii    extensoruni    digitorum    (manus), 

331 
tApoiicuroses  tendinuni  extensoruni  digitorum  (pedis),  373, 

3S0 
Aponeurosis  (see  also  "  Fascia  "),  262 

dorsal,  of  the  extensor  tendons  of  the  fingers, 

329-331 
of  the  extensor  tendons  of  the  thumb, 

331 
of  the  extensor  tendons  of  the  toes,  373, 

380 
epicranial,  300,  302 
of  the  external  ol)lique  muscle  of  the  abdomen, 

274.  3^3,  3«5 
intercostal,  anterior  or  external,  274 
posterior  or  internal,  280 
m.  obliqui  externi  abdominis,  274,  383,  385 
occipitofrontal,  300,  302 
paluiaris,  322,  332 
plantaris,  375,  376 
verteliral,  267 
•Arch,  axillar)-,  283 

of  the  soleus  muscle,  363,  371,  and  note  to  p.  363 
Arcus  lumbocostalis  lateralis  [HalleriJ.  286 
medialis  [flalleri],  2S6 
tendineus  m.  levatoris  aui,  346 
solei,  363,  371 
Armpit,  the,  283 
Axilla,  the,  283 

B. 

Band,  crucial,  inferior,  334  and  note 
superior,  334  and  note 
iliolibial,  338.  340.  342 
oblique,  334  and  note 
vaginal,  inferior,  334  ami  note 
iniilille,  334  and  imtc 
superior,  334  and  note 
Rellv  (of  muscle),  262 
lioriler,  falciform,  349,  383 
liiiccal  fat-pad.  290 
Bursa  or  luirsiu : 

of  the  aponeurotic  expansion  of  the  sartorius  muscle, 

356,  362  and  note 
of  the  biceps  llexor  cruris  muscle,  inferior,  363  and 

note 
of  the  bice])s  flexor  cruris  muscle,  superior,  342  and 

note 
bicipitogastrocnemial,  363  and  note 
bicipiloradial,  316,  321  and  note 
.  of  the  coracobrachialis  inuscje,  314  and  note 
of  the  extensor  carpi  radialis  brcvior  muscle,  331  and 
note 


Bursa  or  bursje : 

of  the  flexor  carpi  radialis  muscle,  323  and  note 
of  the  flexor  carjii  ulnaris  muscle,  333  and  note 
of  the  gastrocnemius  muscle,  inner  head,  362  and 

note,  363,  369 
of  the  gastrocnemius  muscle,  outer  head,  363  and 

note 
gluteofemoral,  342  and  note 
of  the  hamular  process,  297 
iliopectiueal,  34H  and  note,  356 
of  the  iliopsoas  tendon,  34S  and  note 
infrapatellar,  deep,  366 

subcutaneous,  350 
of  the  infrasi)inatus  muscle,  312  and  note 
intermctacari)ophalaiigeal,  330 
iutcrmetalarsophalangcal,  380 
interosseous  of  the  elbow,  321  and  note 
intratendiuous  of  the  olecranon,  320  and  note 
of  the  lalissimus  dorsi  muscle,  314  ami  note 
of  the  luiiibricalis  muscle,  3S0  and  note 
of  the  obturator  internus  muscle.  341  and  note 
of  the  pecliiieus  muscle,  347  and  note,  370 
of  the  popliteus  muscle,  363  and  note 
prepatellar,  subcutaneous,  350 

suljfascial,  355 

sublctidiuous,  355 
propria  of  the  .sartorius  muscle,  355  and  note 
of  the  pyriformis  muscle,  348  and  note 
of  the  rectus  femoris  muscle,  348  and  note 
of    the    semimembranosus   muscle,    362    and    note, 

370 
'  of  the  sinus  of  the  tarsus,  364 

of  tlie  sternohyoid  muscle,  294  and  note 

of  the  sternothyroid  muscle,  294  and  note 

subacromial,  312 

of  the  subscapularis  muscle,  313  and  note,  314 

subcutaneous  of  the  acromion,  311 
of  the  calcaneum,  374 
of  the  chin,  2S2 
of  the  coccyx,  342 
of  the  fingers,  dorsal,  327,  330 
of  the  iiiiiex- finger,  dorsil,  327 
of  the  internal  condyle  of  the  liutnerus, 

320 
of  the  internal  malleolus,  374 
of  the  laryngeal  prominence,  2S2 
nictacarpophalaugeal,  dorsal,  327,  330 
of  the  olecranon,  314,  320 
of  the  i)osterior  superior  .spine  of  the 

ilium,  342 
of  the  sacrum.  342 
of  the  tubercle  of  the  tibia,  355 

subdeltoid,  312 

subtcndinou.s,  261 

of  the  olecranon,  320  and  note 

of  the  tibialis  anticus  muscle,  37S  and 

note 
of  the  tibialis  posticus  muscle,  379  and 
note 

of  the  teiido  .\chi1lis,  370  and  note 

of  the  teres  m.ijor  muscle.  314  and  note 

of  the  thyrohyoid  muscle,  294 

5° 


394 


INDEX 


Bursa  or  bursfe : 

trochauteric,  of  the  gluteus  niaximus  muscle,  340  and 
note,  342 
of  the  gluteus  medius  muscle,  anterior, 

34S  and  note 
of  the  gluteus  medius  muscle,  posterior, 

342  and  note 
of  the  gluteus  minimus  muscle,  34S  and 
note 
Bursa  vcl  bursas : 

anserina,  356,  362 
bicipitogastrocnemialis,  363 
bicipitoradialis,  316,  321 
cubitalis  interossea,  321 
glutasofemoralis,  342 
iliaca  subtendinea,  348 
iliopectinea,  34S,  356 
infrapatellaris  profunda,  366 

subcutanea,  350 
intermetacarpophalangeae,  330 
intermetatarsophalangese,  3530 
intratendinea  olecrani.  320 
mucosa  subtendinea,  261 
musculi  bicipitis  femoris  inferior,  363 
superior,  342 
coracobrachialis,  314 
extensoris  carpi  radialis  brevis,  331 
flexoris  carpi  radialis,  323 
ulnaris,  333 
gastrocnemii  lateralis,  363 

medialis,  362,  363,  369 
infraspinati,  312 
latissimi  dorsi,  314 
lumbricalis,  3S0 
obturatoris  iuterni,  341 
pectinei,  347 
piriformis,  34S 
poplitei,  363,  370 
recti  femoris,  34S 
sartorii  propria,  355 
semimembranosi,  362,  370 
sternoh}oidei,  294 
subscapularis,  313,  314 
tensons  veli  palatini,  297 
teretis  majoris,  314 
thyreoh3-oidei,  294 
musculorum  lumbricalium  pedis,  3S0 
praepatellaris  subcutanea,  350 
subfascialis,  355 
subtendinea,  355 
sinus  tarsi,  364 
subacromialis,  312 
subcutanea  acromialis,  311 
calcanea,  374 
cocc\'gea,  342 

epicondj-li  (humeri)  medialis,  320 
malleoli  medialis,  374 
olecrani,  314,  320 
prsemeutalis,  282 
prominentia;  larj-ngeje,  282 
sacralis,  342 
t  spinae  iliacse  posterioris,  342 

tuberositatis  tibife,  355 
subcutanea:  digitorum  dorsales,  327,  330 

metacarpophalangea;  dorsales,  327,  330 
subdeltoidea,  311 

subtendinea  m.  tibialis  anterioris,  37S 
posterioris,  379 
olecrani,  320 
tendinis  calcanei  [Achillis],  370 
trochanterica  m.  glutaii  maximi.  340,  342 

medii  anterior,  348 
posterior,  342 
minimi,  34S 


Canal,  crural,  381-390 
femoral,  381-390 
Hunter's,  351,  356,  357,  360 
obturator,  346,  347,  357,  361,  389 


*Canal,  popliteal,  363  and  note,  371 
Canalis  adductorius  [Huuteri],  351 
femoralis,  3S1-390 
inguinalis,  381-390 
obturatorius,  346,  347,  357,  361,  3S9 
t  poplileus,  363,  371 

Canals  for  the  extensor  tendons  of  the  fingers,  331 
Caput  (musculii,  262 
commune,  263 
Centrum  teudineum,  286,  287 
Chiasma  tendiunm,  33J  and  note 
Chorda  obliqua.  317 
*Commissure  of  the  tendons  of  the  flexor  sublimis  digitorum, 
325  and  note 
Compartment,  iliac,  390 

vascular,  344,  349,  389,  390 
Cord,  spermatic,  274-276,  384,  3S5,  389 
Cornu  inferius  (marginis  falciformis),  349,  3S3 
superius  (marginis  falciformis),  349,  3S3 
Corpus  adiposum  buccae,  290 
Cross-striated  contractile  substance,  260 
Crura  (see  also  "  Pillars  ") : 

of  the  diaphragm,  286  and  note,  345 
Cms  inferius  annuli  inguinalis,  349,  3S3 
superius  annuli  inguinalis,  349,  383 


Diaphragm,  the,  286,  287 

costal  portion,  2S1,  286,  287 
crura,  286  and  note,  345 
sternal  portion,  281,  2S6,  2S7 
vertebral  portion,  2S6,  287 
Diaphragma,  286,  287 

crus  intermedium,  286,  345 
laterale,  2S6 
mediale,  286,  345 
pars  costalis,  281,  286,  287 
lumbalis,  286,  287 
sternalis,  281,  286,  2S7 
t  oris,  294,  295 


Elementar\^  constituents  of  muscle,  260,  261 
Eminence,  hypothenar,  322-324 
plantar,  central,  375 
inner,  375 
outer,  375 
thenar,  322,  324 
tEminentiae  plantares,  375 
Endoni3-sium,  260,  261 
Epimj-sium,  261 
Expansion,  aponeurotic,  of  the  tendon   of   the  sartorius 

muscle,  351  and  note 
Expansion,    aponeurotic,    of  the    tendon    of   the  gracilis, 
muscle,  351  and  note 


Falx  (aponeurotica)  inguinalis,  3S7-390,  and  note  to  p.  3S7 
Fascia  (see  also  "Aponeurosis"),  264 

Abernethy's,  38S  and  note 

axillary,  282,  283 

bicipital,  315,  322,  327 

brachial,  264,  282,  314,  3S3 

buccopharyngeal,  302 

cervical,  deep,  266,  267,  2S2,  291-293 

cremasteric,  3S2,  note 

cremasterica  (Cooperi),  3S2  and  note,  383 

cribriform,  3S2 

of  the  dorsum  of  the  foot,  deep,  366 

of  the  dorsum  of  the  hand,  327 

of  the  forearm,  deep,  314,  320,  327,  ^1,2 

gluteal  portion  of  the  fascia  lata.  266,  267 

iliac,  285,  346,  349,  383,  387,  389,  390  and  note 

iliopectineal,  349,  383,  390  and  note 

infraspinous,  266,  267 

intercolumnar,  382  and  note,  383 

lata,  33S,  339,  350,  355,  360,  382,  3S3 
iliac  portion,  349,  note 
pubic  portion,  349,  3S3,  390  and  note 


INDEX 


395 


Fascia  of  the  Intissiinus  ilorsi  muscle,  283 

of  the  leg,  deep,  354,  362,  364,  366,  368-370,  374 
deep  liiyer,  36S,  369,  374 
superficial  laver,  36S,  369,  374 
lumbar,  midifle  layer,  270,  271,  285,  2S6,  343,  345 

superficial  or  posterior  layer,  266-269,  273, 
2S5,  342 
masseteric,   291,  note  (see  also  "Fascia  parotideo- 

massetcrica") 
obturator,  2S8,  346 
palmar.  322,  332 
parotid,    291,    note    (see    also    "Fascia  parotideo- 

masseterica") 
pectineal,  349,  3S3,  39f) 
pectoral,  2S2,  2S3,  291 
pelvic,  white  line  of  the,  346 
plantar,  375,  376 
prevertebral.  292 

pro])ria  of  Astley  Cooper,  382,  note 
semilunar,  315,  322,  327 
of  the  sole,  dce]>,  375,  376 
spermatic,  382  and  note,  383 
supraspinous.  267 
temporal,  302,  303,  306 

ilee])  layer,  303,  306 
superficial  layer,  302,  303 
of  the  thigh,  deep,  338. '339.  35o.  355.  360.  382,  383 
triangular,  383  and  note,  3S4,  3S5,  390 
Fascia  antibrachii,  314,  320,  327,  332 
axillaris,  2.S2,  283 
brachii,  264,  282,  283,  314 
buccopharyngea,  302 
colli,  2S2,  291-293 
coracoclavicularis,  282 
cremasterica  [Cooperi],  382  and  note,  383 
cribrosa,  382 

cruris,  355,  362.  364,  366,  368-370,  374 
dorsalis  manus,  327 
pedis,  366 
t  {jlutaa,  266,  267 

iliaca,  285,  346,  386,  387,  389,  390 
iliopectinea,  344,  389,  390 
infraspinata.  266,  267 
lata.  33S,  339.  350,  355,  360,  3S2,  383 
t  Uimbalis,  2.S5  (see  also  notes  to  pp   267  and  285) 

lumbodorsalis,  266-269,  273,  285,  342 
t  m.  latissimi  dorsi,  283 

nucha;,  266,  267 
obturatoria,  28S,  346 
parotideoniasseterica,  291,  300 
pectinea,  349,  383,  390 
pectoralis,  282,  283,  291 
pra;vertebralis,  292 
superficialis,  264 

abdominis,  382 
supraspinata,  267 
temporalis,  302,  303,  306 

lamina  ])rofnnda,  303,  306 

superficialis,  302,  303 
transversalis,  275,  276.  285,  344,  385,  38S,  390 
Fasciculi  of  muscular  filires,  260,  261 

transversi  aponeurosis  |)almaris,  332 
plautaris,  375 
I'atpad,  buccal,  290 
tFibnu  aunulares,  334 
t  collaleralcs,  3.S3 

t  cnicial;u,  3,34 

iutercrurales,  383 
Fibres.  intercoUimnar,  383  and  note 

muscular,  260.  261 
Fold  (see  also  "  Plica"): 

of  the  uxill.1,  anterior,  283 
posterior,  283 
epigastric,  386,  387.  note 
hypogastric,  386,  387,  note 
I)ul)ovcsical,  ^>Vi 

siniilunar,  of  Douglas,  275,  276,  387,  389 
transverse  vesical,  3S6 
umbilical,  external,  3S6,  3S7,  note 
median,  386,  387,  note 


Fold,  urachal,  386,  3,87,  note 
Foramen  quadratuin,  286,  2S7 
venie  cavic,  2S6,  287 
Fossa,  antecubilal,  322 
t  axillaris,  283 

cubitalis,  322 
iliopectinea,  350 
ovalis,  274,  276,  349,  383 
poplitea,  358 
scarp;c  major,  350 
Fovea  inguin.ilis  lateralis,  niedialis,  3S6 
supravesicalis,  3S6 
fFoveola  radialis,  327 
Funiculus  spermaticus,  274-276,  3>4,  3.S5,  389 
Furrow  (see  also  "Sulcus"): 
bicipital,  inner,  315 
outer,  326 
of  the  forearm,  radial,  322 
ulnar,  322 
plantar,  inner,  375 
outer,  375 


Galea  ai)oneurotica,  300,  302 

Groove  (see  also  "Furrow"  aiul  "Sulcus"): 
deltoideopectoral,  282 
for  the  suDclavian  artery,  299 


H. 

Ham,  the,  358 
Head  (of  muscle),  262 

common,  263 
Hiatus  adductorius,  356,  357,  360 

aorticus,  2S6,  287 

a-sopliageus,  2S6,  287 
Hollow,  bicipital,  321,  note 
Uypotheiiar,  322-324 

I. 

luscriptio  tcudinea,  262 

Inscriplioiics  tendineae  m.  recti  abdominis,  276,  385 
Intersection,  tendinous,  262 

Intersections,  tendinous,  of  the  rectus  abdominis  muscle, 
276,  3«5 


Juncturae  tendinum,  330 


L. 


Lacertus  fibrosus,  315.  322.  327 
Lacuna  musculorum,  390 

vasorum,  344,  349,  389,  390 
Lamina  ])rofunda  fascia.-.  264 

superficialis  fasciie.  264 
Layer,  muscular,  of  the  trunk  : 

appendicuhir,  2S4  and  note 
dorsal,  deep,  284  and  note 

superficial.  284  and  note 
ventral,  intercostal,  2>4  and  note 
subcostal,  284  ami  note 
Ligamuit  or  ligaments  (see  also  '■  I.igaiuentum") : 

annular,  of  the  ankle,  anterior,  364,  366,  372,  373 
external,  364.  note,  572 
internal,  370,  371,374 
superior,  366,  372 
of  wrist,  anterior,  322,  324.  332,  334 
posterior,  326-328,  330 
arched,  external,  286 
internal,  286 
of   the  bladder,   .superior   fal.se,  or   suspensory, 

3S6,  note 
Cooper's,  3.14,  353,  390  and  note 
cricothyroid,  middle,  29.) 
femoral.  349.  note 

of  tile  fingers.  su])erficial  transverse,  332 
fundiform,  of  the  penis,  3S2  and  note 

(of  Ketzius),  365  and  note,  373 

50 — z 


396 


INDEX 


Ligaiiieut  or  lisamenls : 

Gim'bL-rnafs,  344,  349,  3S9,  590 

of  Heiile,  3S7  and  iiole,  3SS-390 

of  Hesselbacli,  3.S5,  3S7  and  note,  389 

Hev's,  349,  note 

ilio'tibial,  33S,  340,  342 

intenuetacarpal,  distal,  anterior  or  palmar,  334 

intermetatarsal,  plantar  distal,  376,  37S 

interosseous,  of  the  forearm,  324,  325,  329 

of  the  le.<,',  365,  367 
lambdoideum,  364,  366,  372,  373 
metatarsal,  transverse,  376,  37S 
oblique  (radio-uluar),  317 
obturator,.  345 
palpebral,  internal,  300 
patellar,  353,  355,  356,  366,  367 
Poupart's,   274,   276,   344,  345,    349,  3S2,  383,  3S9, 

390 

pterygomandibular,  297,  307 

pter^'gomaxillary,  297,  307 

pubic,  of  Astley  Cooper,  344.  353,  390  and  note 

sacrosciatic,  anterior,  340,  341,  346 

great,  340,  341,  343 
posterior.  340,  341,  343 
small,  340,  341,  346 

stylohyoid,  292-294,  296 

suspensory,  of  the  penis,  274,  276,  349,  382,  3S3 

"true"  and  "false,"  382, 
note 

tarsal,  internal,  300 

th}roli}oid,  middle,  294 

of  the  toes,  superficial  transverse,  375 

transverse  metacarpal,  334 

vaginal  (of  the  fingers),   334-336,   and  note    to 

P-334 
of  the  toes,  376,  378 
Ligamentum  ve/  ligamenta : 

arcuatum  externum,  2S6 

internum,  2S6 
brevia,  331,  note 

capitulorum    (ossium    metacarpalium)    trans- 
versa, 334 
(ossium    metatarsalium)    trans- 
versa, 376 
carpi  dorsale,  326-32S,  330 
transversum,  324,  334 
volare,  322,  332 
cricothyreoideum  (medium),  294 
cruciatimi  cruris,  364,  366,  372,  373 
t  fundiforme  pedis,  365,  373 

penis,  3S2 
inguinale  [Pouparti],  274,  276,  344,  345,  349,  3S2, 

383.  389.  390 
reflexum  [Collesi],  383-3S5,  390,  and 
note  to  p.  3S3 
iuterfoveolare  [Hesselbachi],  385,  387  and  note, 

3S9 
intercostalia  externa,  274 
interna,  280 
laciniatum,  370,  371,  374 
lacunare  [Gimberuati],  344,  349,  389,  390 
longa,  331,  note 

lumbocostale,  270,  271,  285,  286,  343,  345 
nucha;-,  267,  268 
palpebrale  mediale,  300 
patelUe,  353,  355,  356,  366,  367 
pubicum  [CooperiJ,  344,  353,  390 
sacrospinosum,  340,  341,  346 
sacrotuberosum,  340,  341,  343 
stylohyoideum,  292-294,  296 
suspensorium  penis,  274,  276,  349,  383 
transversum  cruris,  366.  372 
umbilicale  laterale,  medium,  387 
vaginalc  digitorum  (maniis),  334-336 
.     „      „  (pedis),  376,  378 

Linea  alba,  274,  276,  3S3-385,  3S9 
t  arcuata,  346  and  note 

seniicircularis  [Douglasi],  275,  276,  387,  389 
semilunaris  [Spigeli],  276,  389 
Line,  white,  of  the  pelvic  fascia,  346 


M. 


Margo  falciformis,  349,  383 
Membraua  hyothjreoidea,  294 

interossea  antibrachii,  324,  325,  329 

cruris,  367 
obturatoria,  345 
jNIembrane,  costocoracoid,  282 
cricotl;yroid,  294 
interosseous,  of  the  forearm,  324,  325,  329 

of  the  leg,  365,  367 
obturator,"  345 
th3'roh}-oid,  294 
tMesotenon,  333  and  note 
Muscle  or  muscles  (see  also  Latin  names  under  "Musculus 
Z'c/  niusculi  ") : 
of  the  abdomen,  274-276,  27S,  279,  281 
abductor  hallucis,  371,  374,  376 

indicis,  323,  324,  331,  336 
minimi  digiti  (manus),  323,  324,  334,  336 
(pedis),   364,   366,   372,  373, 

376.  377 
polhcis  brevis,  324.  334,  336 

longus,  326,  328-330,  and   note  to 
p.  326 
accessorius  ad  sacrolumljalem,  268,   269,   272,  273, 

343 
adductor  brevis,  345,  351-353-  356,  357,  360 

longus,  345,  346,  350-353.  356,  357.  360 
niagnus,  345  and  note,  346,  351,  352,  354, 

356-360 
minimus,  345  and  note,  35S-360 
obliquus  hallucis,  378 

pollicis,  note  to  p.  324 
pollicis,    324,    325,    334-336.  and    note  to 

p.  324 
transversus  hallucis,  37S,  380 

pollicis,  note  to  p.  324 

anconeus,  318,  319,  326,  32S,  329 

antagonistic,  of  the  arm,  263,  315-320 

attollens  auriculam,  266,  300 

attraheiis  auriculam,  300 

auricularis  anterior,  300 

posterior,  266,  302 
superior,  266,  300 

of  the  back,  266-273 

biceps  flexor  cruris.  352,  358-363 

cubiti,  314,  315,  317,  325 

bipenniform,  262 

brachialis  anticus,  315-31?.  319.  3^1.  325 

broad,  262 

buccinator,  297,  303,  304,  306,  307 

canine,  297,  300-304 

ceratopharyngeus,  296 

cervicalis  ascendens,  26S,  269,  272,  273 

chondroglossus,  296. 

chondropharyngeus,  296 

circumflexus  palati,  295,  297,  30S 

coccygeus,  28S.  347 

complexus,  267-279,  272,  273,  278,  30S 

compressor  naris,  301-303,  and  note  to  p.  301 

constrictor  of  the  pharynx,  inferior,  297 

middle,  293,  296 
superior,  297 

coracobrachialis.  314-317 

corrugator  supercilii.  300,  301 

cremaster,  274-276,  384,  385 

cricothyroid,  294.  296 

crureus',  352-354.  356 

cucullaris,  see  "Muscle,  trapezius" 

curvator  coccygis.  288,  3.^4.  346 

deltoid,  266,  269,  274,  275,  310,  317,  319 

depressor  alte  nasi.  301-305,  and  note  to  p.  301 
auguli  oris,  290,  293,  297,  300,  303,  306 
labii  iuferioris,  300,  302-304,  306 

digastric,  262,  292,  297,  298,  307,  308 

double-headed,  262 

elementary  constituents,  260 

epitrochleo-ancoueus,  320  and  note 


INDEX 


397 


Muscle  or  muscles : 

extensor  brevis  digitoruni  pedis,  364  and  note,  365, 

367.  372.  373 
hallucis,  364  and  note,  365,  367,  372 
pollicis,  326,  328-330,  and  note  to 
p.  326 
carpi  radialis  brevior,  317,  321,  326-329 

lon},nor,    317,   319,   321,    322, 
326-329 
ulnans,  318,  325,  326,  328,  329 
coccygis,  2S8 

communis  digitoruni,  326-329 
indicis,  326,  32S-330 
longus  digitoruni  jjcdis,  364,  365,  367 
lialhuis,  364  and  note,  365,  367 
pollicis,  326,  328-330,  and    note   to 
p.  326 
minimi  digiti.  326 
ossis  nietacarpi  pollicis,  326,  328-330,  and 

note  to  p.  326 
primi  iutcrnodii  pollicis,  326,  328-330,  and 

note  to  p.  326 
proprius  hallucis,  364  and  note,  365,  367 
sccuudi   interiiodii   pollicis,   326,  32S-330, 
and  note  to  p.  326 
external  olilifiue,  of  tlie  abdomen,  266-269,  274-276, 

27«.  279-  3«4.  385 
of  the  face,  300-307 

of  facial  expression,  difference  between  the  author's 
grouping  of  these  and  that  usual  in  England, 
note  to  p.  303 
flexor  accessorius,  376-378 

brevis  digitorum  pedis,  376 
hallucis,  376-378 

minimi  digiti  (manus),  324,  325,  334-336 
(pedis),    374    and    note, 

376-378 
polhcis,  324,  325,  334,  336,  and  note  to 

P-  324 
carpi  radialis,  317,  322,  323,  325 

ulnaris,  317-320,  322,  323,  325 

longus  digitoruni  pedis,  370,  371,  376,  377 

hallucis,  370,  371,  376,  377 

pollicis,  322,  324,  325,  336 

perforaus  (manus),  324,  325,  331,  335,  336 

(pedis),  370,  371,  376,377 
perforatus    (manus),   317,   321-323,    325,    331, 
.335.  336 
(pedis),  376 
jirofundus  digitoruni,  324,  325,  331,  335,  336 
sublimus    digitorum,   317,   321-323,   325,   331, 

33= 
of  the  foot,  372-3S0 
of  the  forearm,  321-329 
forms  of,  262 
frontalis,  300 
fusiform,  262 

gastrocm-mius,  35S-363,  368,  369 
gemellus  inferior,  340  and  note,  341,  343,  358,  359 
sui)erior.  340  and  note,  341,  343,  358,  359 
general  considerations,  259-264 
genioglossus,  295,  296,  307 
geniohyoglossus,  295,  296,  307 
geniohyoiil,  294-296,  307 
gluteus  maximus,  338-340.  342.  343,  360 

niiilius.  340,  343.  345.  353 

minimus.  341-3-13.  345.  333 
gracilis,  345,  346,  3.S0,  351,  354,  360,  362 
of  the  hand.  330-336 
of  the  lieail,  295-297,  300-308 
of  the  head  and  neck,  2H9-308 
of  the  hip.  338-349 
Horner's,  see  "Tensor  tarsi"  and  notes  3  and  4  to 

p.  3or 
iliocostalis,  see  under  '*  Musculus" 
iliacus,  .344.  346,  .347,  350 

iliojisoas,  ^344,  346-34'<.  35o,  353.  354.  360,  361,  386,  390 
iucisiviis,  inferior,  303,  304.  306 

su])erior,  303,  304 
inferior  lingual,  296 


Muscle  or  muscles : 

infraspinatus,  312,  318,  319 

insertion,  261 

iutercoslal,  external,  268.  271,  274,  276-280 

internal,  275-2S1 
internal  oblique,  of  the  abdomen,  267-270,  274-276, 

384.  385 
interosseous,  dorsal,  of  the  foot,  373-379 

of  the  hand,  3.i9,  331,  334-336 
palmar,  334-336 
plantar,  376,  379 
interspinales,  270-272,  279,  339 
intertransversales,  270-273,  299,  339,  343 
latissiuius  dorsi,  266,  267,  269,  277,  278,  317 
of  the  leg,  364-371; 
levator  anguli  oris,  297,  300-304 

scapulx-,  266,  267,  269,  277,  27S,  293, 
298,  319 
ani,  288 

coccygis,  288,  347 
labii  inferioris,  303,  304,  306 

superioris  aheque  nasi,  300  and  note,  301 
projirius,  300  and  note,  302 
menti,  303,  304,  306 
palati,  295,  297,  308 
lingualis  inferior,  296 
longissimus.  sec  under  "Musculus" 
of  the  lower  extremity,  337-380 
lumbricales  (manus).  324,  326,  332,  336 

(pedis),  376,  377 
masse ter,  293,  302 

dee])  jiortion,  303,  306,  308 
superficial  portion,  302,  306,  308 
of  mastication,  306,  307 
multifidus  spina-,  270,  273,  343 
mylohyoid.  292-295,  297,  307 
of  the  neck,  290-299 

oblique,  of  the  abdomen,  external,  266-269.  274-276, 

278,  279,  384,  3.S5 
internal,  267-270,  274-276, 

384.  385 
obliquus  capitis  inferior,  270-272,  278,  279 

superior,  268,  270-272,  278,  279,  30S 
obturator  externus,  341,  343,  345,  353. 356,  357,  359-361 
interiius,  340  aud  note,  341,  342,  344,  347, 

358.  3.S9 
occipitalis,  266,  27S,  302 
occiiutofroiitalis.  300,  302 
oniohy()i<l,  277.  292,  293.  314.  317,  319 
opponens  minimi  digiti  (manus).  325,  334-336 

(pedis), 364  and  note,  372, 378 
pollicis,  325,  334-336 
orbicularis  oris,  303-305 

palpeiiraruni,  300-302,  aud  notes  3  and  4 

to  p.  301 

pars    lachrynialis,    or    lachrymal 

portion,    see   "Tensor  tarsi" 

and  notes  3  and  4  to  p.  301 

pars  orhitalis,  or  orbital  ])ortion, 

300,  301 
pars     palpcbralis,     or     palpebral 
portion,  300,  301 
origin,  ?6i 
palmaris  brevis,  322,  332 

longus,  332 
pectiueus,  345.  347,  350-353,  357,360,  361 
pecloralis  major,  274,  275,  317 

abdominal  portion.  274 
clavicular  portion.  274,  275,  317 
sternocostal  portion,  274,  275,  278 
minor,  274,  275,  278,317 
penniform,  262 

peroneus  brevis,  364-367,  371,  373 
longus,  364,  366,  367,  379 
tcrtius.  364,  367,  372 
platysma.  282.  290,  291.  300.  302,  306 
plan'taris,  35.S-362.  3&S,  369,  371 
popliteus,  3'>i-363.  366.  369-371 
pronator  (fuadraius,  323-325,  333,  334 

radii  teres,  317,  322,  325,  327,  328 


398 


INDEX 


Muscle  or  muscles : 

psoas  iiiaguus,  286,  344-347,  350 

parvus,  344 
pterygoid,  external,  295,  307,  308 
internal,  295,  307,  308 
pyraniidalis  nasi,  300,  301 
pyriformis,  340-347,  358,  359 
quadratus  femoris,  340-343,  345,  346 

labii  superioris,  300, 302,  and  note  to  p.  300 
luniboruui,  339,  344,  345 
meuti,  300,  302-304,  306 
quadriceps  extensor  cruris,  350-353,  355,  360 
rectus  abdouiiuis,  275,  276,  278,  385,  387,  389,  390 
capitis  anticus  major,  277,  293,  294,  298,  30S 
minor,  299,  308 
lateralis,  271,  272,  279,  298,  299,  308 
posticus  (major  and  minor),  271,  272, 
279,  308 
femoris  muscle,  343,  345,  350-353 
retralieus  auriculam,  266,  300 
rhomboideus  major,  267,  269,  319 
minor,  267,  269,  319 
risorius,  290,  300,  303 
rotatores  dorsi,  271-273 
sacrococcygeus  auticus,  288,  344,  346 

posticus,  2S8 
sacrolumbalis,  see  "Musculus  iliocostalis  " 
sacrospinalis,  see  "Musculus  iliocostalis" 
sartorius,  345,  350,  351,  353355,  362 
scalenus  anticus,  277.279,  293,  298,  299 

medius,  270,  277,  278,  293,  298,  299 
pleuralis,  279 

posticus,  268,  269,  277,  278,  29S,  299 
semimembranosus,  351,  354,  358-363 
semispinalis,  see  under  "  Musculus  " 

colli,  270,  272,  273 
semitendinosus,  351,  354,  35S,  360,  362 
serratus  magnus,  267,  268,  274-27S,  317,  319 
posticus  inferior,  267-269,  278,  343 
superior,  267,  269,  278 
of  the  shoulder,  310-313 
soleus,  363,  369,371 
spinalis,  see  under  "Musculus  " 

cervicis,  268,  273 
splenius  capitis,  266-269,  ^77,  278,  293,  30S 

colli,  267-269 
sternalis,  2S2 

sternocleidomastoid,  278,  292,  293,  308,  317 
sternolnoid,  281,  292-294 
sternomastoid,  27S,  292,  293,  30S,  317 
sternoth3roid,  277,  2S1,  292,  293 
strap-shaped,  262 
structure,  260,  261 
stylohyoid,  27S,  292,  297,  308 
stylopharyngeus,  293,  297,  308 
subclavius,  274,  275,  278,  299,  311,  314,  317 
subcostal,  280 
subcrureus,  354,  357 
subscapularis,  277,  313,  315-317 

supinator  radii  brevis,  317,  319,  321,  323-325,  327-329 
lougus,'3i7,  319,  321-323,  325-327,  329 
supraspinatus,  310,  312,  313,  319 
synergistic,  263 
temporal,  306-308 

tensor  fascuc-  femoris,  33S,  345,  350,  351,  353 
latae,  338,  345,  350,  351,  353 
palati,  295,  297,  30S 

tarsi,  301,  302,  and  notes  3  and  4,  p.  301 
vagina;  femoris,  338,  345,  350,  351,  353 
teres  major,  266,  269,  311,  3:3,  316-319 
of  the  thorax,  274,  275,  277-283 
tln'rohyoid,  277,  292  294,  296 
thyropharvngeus,  29'^,  294 
tibialis  anticus,  364,  365,  367,  377,  37S 

posticus,  370,  371,  377,  379 
trachelomastoid,  268,  270,  272,  273,  278,  308 
transversalis  abdominis,  269-271,  275,  276,  281,  3S5, 

387.  389 
cervicis,  268,  270,  272,  273 
linguEe,  296 


Muscle  or  muscles : 

transverse,  of  the  tongue,  296 
transversus  ineiiti,  300,  304 
nuchaj,  266,  302 
trapezius,  266,  269,  278,  292,  293,  308,  319 
triangularis  menti,  290,  293,  297,  300,  303,  306 

sterni,  281 
triceps  extensor  cubiti,  266,  310-320,  329 
rotator  femoris,  340,  note 
*  surte,  36S  and  note,  369 

of  the  trunk,  265-288 
of  the  upper  arui,  315  320 
of  the  upper  extremit}-,  309-336 
vastus  externus,  345,  352,  353,  356,  35S-361 
mternus,  348,  350-354,  360,  361,  367 
zygomaticus  major,  290,  297,  300,  302,  303 
minor,  300  and  note 
Musculus   vcl   musculi    (see    also    English    names    under 
"  Muscle  or  muscles  ") : 
abdominis,  274-276,  27^,  279,  281 
abductor  digiti    quinti   (maiius),   323,   324,    334, 

336 
(pedis),  364,  366,  372,  373, 
376,  377 
hallucis,  371,  374,  376 
jjolhcis  brevis,  324,  334.  336 
lougus,  326,  328-330 
adductor  brevis,  345,  351-353,  356,  357,  360 
hallucis,  378,  380 

longus,  345,  346,  350-353,  356,  357,  360 
magnus,  345,  346,  351,  352,  354,  356-360 
minimus,  345,  35S-360 
polhcis,  324,  325,  334-336 
ancouEeus,  318,  319,  326,  328,  329 
antibrachii,  321-329 
articularis  genu,  354,  357 
articulationis  humeri,  310-313 
auricularis  anterior,  300 

posterior,  266,  302 
superior,  266,  300 
biceps,  262 

brachii,  314,  315,  317,  325 
femoris,  352,  358-363 
bipennatus,  262 
t  biventer,  262 

brachialis.  315-317,  319,  321,  325 

brachii,  315-320 

brachioradialis,  317,  319,  321-323,  325-327,  329 

buccinator,  297,  303,  304,  306,  307 

caninus,  297,  300-304 

capitis,  295-297,  300-30S 

ceratopharyiigeus,  296 

chondroglossus,  296 

choiidropharyngevis,  296 

coccygeus,  2S8,  "347 

colli,  290-299 

et  capitis,  2S9-308 
constrictor  pharyngis  inferior,  297 

medius,  293,  296 
superior,  297 
coracobrachialis,  314-317 
t  cornigator  supercilii,  300,  301 

coxa;,  33S-349 
cremaster,  274-276,  3S4,  3S5 
cricothyreoideus,  294,  296 
cruris,  364-371 

deltoideus,  266,  269,  274,  275,  310,  317,  319 
depressor  septi,  303-305 
digastricus,  292,  297,  29S,  307,  308 
dorsi,  266-273 
epicranius,  300,  302 
epitrochleo-anconcEus,  320 
extensor  carpi  radialis  brevis,  317,  321,  326-329 

longus,  317,'  319,  321,  322, 
326-329 
ulnaiis,  31S,  325,  326,  328,  329 
digiti  quinti  proprius,  326 
digitorum  brevis,  364,  365,  367,  372,  373 
communis,  326-329 
longus,  364,  365,  367 


INDEX 


399 


JIusculus  ivl  niusculi : 

extensor  hallucis  brevis,  364,  365,  367,  372 
loiifjus,  364,  365,  367 
indicis  propius,  326,  328-330 
poUicis  brevis,  326,  32S-330 
lonpus,  326,  32S-330 
extremitatis  iiiferions,  337-3<So 
superioris,  309-336 
faciei,  300-307 
femoris,  350-361 
flexor  carpi  radialis,  317,  322,  323,  325 

ulnaris,  317-320,  322,  323,  325 
digiti    (juinli    brevis    (luauus),    324,    325, 
334-336 
(pedis),  376,  378 
digitorum  brevis,  376 

lougus,  370,  371,  376,  377 
profundus,  324,  325, 33 1 ,  335, 336 
subhniis,  317,  321-323,  325,  331, 

.  335.  :•>?,(> 

hallucis  brevis,  376-37S 

lonjfus,  370,  371,  376,  377 
polhcis  brevis,  324,  325,  334,  336 
loiigus,  322,  324,  325,  336 
frontalis,  300 
fusifonnis,  262 

gastrocnemius,  358-363,  36S,  369 
gemellus  (inferior,  superior),  340  and  note,  341, 

.343.  35-''.  359 
genioj;lossus,  295,  296,  307 
geniohyoideus,  294-296,  307 
gluteus  maximus,  33S-340,  342,  343,  360 
niedius,  340,  343,  345,  353 
minimus,  341-343,  345,  353 
gracilis.  345,  346,  350,  351,  354,  360,  362 
Ilorneri,  301,  302 
livoglossus,  293,  296 
iljacus,  344,  346,  347,  350 
iliocostalis,  268,  269,  273,  343 

cervicis,  268,  269,  272,  273 
dorsi,  26S,  269,  272,  273,  343 
luinborum,  268,  269,  273,  343 
iliopsoas, 344, 346-3-l'\  35o.  353.  354. 360.361,386,390 
incisivus  labii  iuferioris,  303,  304,  306 

superioris,  303,  304 
infraspinatus,  312,  318,  319 
t  interfoveolaris,  275  and  note,  3.^5 

intercostalcs  externi,  268,  271,  274,  276-2S0 

interni,  275-281 
iuterossei  dorsales  (iiianus),  329,  331,  334-336 
(pedis),  373-379 
plantares,  376,  379 
vol  ares,  334-336 
interosseus  dorsalis  I.  (inanus),  323,  324,  331,  336 
interspinales,  270-272,  279,  339 
interlransvcrsarii  anleriores,  299 

postcriores,  271,  272,  299 
t  laterales,  270,  271, 

273.  339.  343 
t  niediales,  271,  273, 

.    .  339.343 

Intissinius  dorsi,  266,  267,  269,  277,  278,  317 
levator  ani,  288 

scapuhe.  266,  267,  269,  277,  27.S,  293,  298,319 
veil  palatini,  295,  297,  30S 
levatores  costarum  breves,  270,  271,  273 

longi,  270,  271,  273 
lougissinius,  268,  273 

ca])itis,  26.S.  270,  272,  273,  278,  308 
cervicis,  26S,  270,  272,  273 
dorsi.  268-270,  272,  273,  343 
longitudinalis  inferior  (lingn;t),  296 
longiis  capitis,  277,  293,  294.  29.8.  30S 

colli,  278,  293,  295,  29.S,  299 
luinbricalcs  (inanus).  324.  330,  332,  336 

(pciis),  376,  377 
manus,  33.'>-336 
uiassetcr.  293,  302 
t  lirofiinda,  303.  306.  308 

t  pars  superficialis,  302,  306,  30S 


Muscuhis  I'd  niusculi : 
t  maslicatorii,  306,  307 

mentalis,  303,  304,  306 
multifidus,  270-273.  343 
myloliyoideus,  292-295,  297,  307 
nasalis,  301-304 

pars  alaris,  302-304 

transversa,  302,  303 
obliquus  capitis  inferior,  270-272,  278,  279 

superior,  268,  270-272,    27.S,   279, 
30S 
externus    abdominis,    266-269,   274-276, 

278,  279,  3S4,  385 
intenius    abdominis,    267-270,    274-276, 
3«4,  3«5 
obturator  externus,  341,  343,  345,  353,  356,  357, 
359361 
internus,  340-342,  344,  347,  358,  359 
occipitalis,  266,  278,  302 
omonyoideus,  277,  292,  293.  314,  317,  319 
oppoiiens  digiti  quiiili  (manus),  325,  334-336 
(pedis),  364,  372,  378 
pollicis,  325,  334-336 
orbicularis  oculi,  300-302 

pars  lacrimalis  [M.  Ilorneri],  301,  302 
orbitalis,  300,  301 
palpebralis,  300,  301 
orbicularis  oris,  303  305 
palmaris  brevis,  322,  332 

longus,  322 
pectineus,  345.  347,  350-353,  357,  360,  361 
pectoralis  major,  274,  275,  317 
pars  abdominalis,  274 

clavicularis,  274,  275,  317 
stcrnocostalis,  274,  275,  278 
pectoralis  minor,  274,  275,  278,  317 
pedis,  372-380 

pcroiucus  brevis,  364-367,  371,  373 
longus,  364,  366,  367,  379 
tenuis,  364,  367,  372 
pirifonnis,  340-347,  35S,  359 
plantaris,  358-362.  368,  369,  371 
popliteus,  360-363,  366,  369-37 1 
procerus,  300,  301 

pronator  quadratus,  323-325,  333,  334 
teres,  317,  322,  325,  327,  328 
psoas  major,  286,  344-347.  35° 

minor,  344 
pterygoideus  externus,  295,  307,  308 
internus,  295,  307,  308 
pyr.imiilalis,  275,  276,  385 
quadratus  femoris.  3.I0-.543,  345,  346 

labii  iiiferions,  300,  302-304,  306 
superioris,  300-302 

caput  augulare,  300,  301 
iiifra-orliitale.  300,  302 
zygomaticum,  300 
quadratus  lumborum,  339,  34a,  345 

plantic,  376-378 
quadriceps  femoris,  350-353,  355,  360 
rectus  abdominis,  275,  276,  278,  3S5,  3S7,  389,  390 
capitis  anterior,  299,  308 

lateralis,    271,    272,    279,    298,   299, 

30S 
posterior  (major,  minor),  271,  272, 
279,  308 
femoris,  343,  345,  350-353 
rhoniboideus  (major,  minor),  267,  269,  319 
risorius,  290,  yio,  303 
rotatores  lireves,  271-273 

longi,  271-273 
sacrococcygeus  anterior,  2S8,  344,  346 

posterior,  288 
.sncrospin.alis,  26S,  273,  285 
sartorius,  345.  350,  351,  353-355,  362 
scalenus  anterior,  277-279.  293.  29S,  299 

medius,  270,  277,  27.S.  293.  29,8,  299 
minimns,  279 

posterior.  2(xS.  269.  277,  278,  29.S,  299 
seuiiuicmbraiiosus,  351.  354.  358-363 


400 


INDEX 


Musculus  vcl  inusculi : 

seniispinalis,  270 

capitis,  267-270,  272,  273,  278,  308 
cer\-icis,  270,  272,  273 
dorsi,  270,  273 
seniitendinosus,  351,  354,  358,  360,  362 
serratus  anterior,  26S,  274-27S,  317,  319 

posterior  inferior,  267-269,  27S,  343 
superior,  267,  269,  27S 
soleus,  363,  369,  371 
spinalis,  268 

cervicis,  26S,  273 
spinalis  dorsi,  268,  273 
spleuius  capitis,  266-269,  277,  27S,  293,  30S 

cervicis,  267-269 
sternalis,  282 

sternocleidomastoideus,  278,  292,  293,  30S,  317 
steruolivoideus,  2S1,  292-294 
sternothyreoideus,  277,  281,  292,  293 
styloglossus,  292,  293,  296,  297,  308 
stylohyoideus,  27S,  292,  297,  30S 
stylopl'iaryngeus,  293,  297,  30S 
subclaviu's,  274,  275,  278,  299,  311,  314,  317 
subcostales,  280 
subscapularis,  277,  313,  315-317 
supinator,  317,  319,  321,  323-325,  327-329 
supraspinatus,  310,  312,  313,  319 
temporalis,  306-308 
tensor  fasciae  lata;,  338,  345,  350,  351,  353 

veli  palatini,  295,  297,  308 
teres  major,  266,  269,  311,  313,  316-319 

miuor,  311-314,  Z^'^,  319 
thoracis,  274,  275,  2Ti-2'tiT, 
thyreohyoideus,  277,  292-294,  296 
tliNTeopharj-ngeus,  293,  294 
tibialis  anterior,  364,  365,  367,  377,  37S 

posterior,  370,  371,  377,  379 
transversus  abdominis,  269-271,  275,  276,  2S1,  3S5, 

387-  3S9 
liuguEe,  296 
menti,  300,  304 
nuchae,  266,  302 
thoracis,  281 
trapezius,  266,  269,  278,  292,  293,  30S,  319 
triangularis,  290,  293,  297,  300,  303,  306 
triceps  brachii,  310-320,  329 

surse,  368,  369 
trunci,  265-288 
unipennatus,  262 
vastus  intermedins,  352-354,  356 

lateralis,  345,  352,  353,  356,  358-361 
mediahs,  348,  350-354,  360,  361,  367 
zygomaticus,  290,  297,  300,  302,  303 
Muscular  fibres,  260,  261 
Myology,  general  considerations,  259,  264 

N. 

Nuclei  of  the  muscular  fibres,  260 

o. 

Opening  in  adductor  niagnus  for  femoral  vessels,  356,  357, 
360 

Opening  (in  the  diaphragm),  aortic,  286,  287 

caval.  2S6,  2S7 
oesophageal,  286,  2S7 

Opening,  saphenous,  274,  276.  349,  383 

Orifice,  inferior,  of  Hunter's  canal,  356,  357,  360 


Pericranium,  300,  302,  303 
Perimysium,  260,  261 

externum,  261 
Peritouieum  parietale,  275.  386,  388 
Peritoneum,  parietal,  275,  386,  388 
Pes  auserinns,  351  and  note 
Pillar  of  the  external  or  superficial  abdominal  ring: 

lower  or  external,  349,  383 

upper  or  internal,  349,  383 
Pillars  of  the  diaphragm,  see  "  Diaphragm  " 


Platysma,  2S2,  290,  291,  300,  302,  306 

ujyoides,  282,  290,  291,  300,  302,  306 
Pleura,  cervical,  279 
Plica  (see  also  "  Fold  ") : 
axillaris  anterior,  283 
posterior,  283 
epigastrica,  3S6 
hjpogastrica,  275,  387 
pubovesicalis,  386 
umbilicalis  lateralis,  3S6 

inedia,_386 
urachi,  386 

vesicalis  transversa,  386 
Portion  of  the  diaphragm,  costal,  2S6,  2S7 
sternal,  2S6,  2S7 
vertebral,  2S6,  2S7 
Pouch,  inginnal,  external,  386  and  note 
internal,  386  and  note 
middle,  386  and  note 
supravesical,  386  and  note 
Process,  falciform,  346 


Raphe,  median,  of  the  mj-lohyoid  muscle,  295 
musculi  myloh^oiilei,  295 
pterygomandibularis,  297,  307 
Retinacula,  331,  note 

Retinaculum  mm.  peron;eorum  inferius,  364,  366,  372 

superius,  372 
of  the  peronei  tendons,  inferior,  364  and  note, 
366,  372 
superior,   see   "  Liga- 
ment, annular,  of 
the      ankle,     ex- 
ternal " 
Ring,  abdominal,  external  or  superficial,  274,  349,  383,  385 
internal  or  deep,  275,  276,  344,  385,  3S7-3S9 
crural,  389,  390 
femoral,  3S9,  390 


Sarcolemma,  260,  261 

Segment,  thoracic,  diagram  of,  2S4  and  note 
Septum,  crural,  383.  38S 
femoral.  383,  388 
femorale  [Cloqueti],  383,  3S8 
intermuscular,  264 

of  the  forearm,  329 
peroneal,  anterior,  364,  367 
posterior.  370,  371 
of  the  thigh,  external,  360 

internal,  350,  351,  353, 

356,  357.  359 
of  the  upper  arm,  external,  311,  319 
internal,  314-317, 

319 
intermusculare,  264 

femoris  laterale,  360 

mediale,  350,  351,  353,  356, 

357.  359       ^ 
fibulare  anterius,  364,  367 
posterius,  370,  371 
humeri  laterale,  311,  319 

mediale,  3i4-3'7.  3^9 
Sheath  of  the  rectus  abdominis  muscle,  274-276,  281,  2S5,  3S5, 

389 
Sheath  or  sheaths,  synovial,  of  the  tendon  or  tendons  (see 

also    "Vagina    vel   vaginte — tendinis    vcl  ten- 
dinum  ") : 
of  the  extensor  carpi  radialis  longior  and  extensor 

carpi  radialis  brevior  muscles.  330 
of  the  extensor  carpi  ulnaris  muscle,  330 
of  the  extensor  communis  digitoruin  and  extensor 

indicis  muscles,  330 
of  the  extensor  longus  digitorum  pedis  and  pero- 

iieus  tertius  muscles,  372 
of  the  extensor  longus  I'^/propriushallucis  muscle, 

372 
of  the  extensor  lonj;us  polHcis  muscle,  330 
of  the  extensor  mimimi  digiti  muscle,  330 


INDEX 


400,1 


Sheath  of  the  extensor  ossis  metacarpi  poUicis  anil  extensor 
prinii  iulernodii  pollicis  muscles,  330,  333 
of  the  extensor  secundi  iuternodii  pollicis  muscle, 

330 
of  the  flexor  carpi  radialis  muscle,  333 
of  the  flexors  of  the  finders,  333 
of  the  flexor  longus  digitoruni  pedis  muscle,  378 
of  the  flexor  lonj^iis  hallucis  muscle,  378 
of  the  flexor  lonjjus  pollicis  muscle,  333 
of  the  flexor  sublimis  and  flexor  profundus  digit- 

orum  muscles,  333 
of  the  peroneus  longus  muscle  (plantar  region),  378 
of  the  peroneus  longus  and  peroneus  brevis  muscles, 

372.  37S 
of  the  tibialis  anticus  muscle,  372 
of  the  tibialis  posticus  muscle,  378 
"Snuff-box,  anatomical."  326  and  note,  327 
•Space,  axillary,  external,  312  and  note,  313 
*  internal.  312  and  note,  313 

Mohrenhemier's,  274,  282,  293 
popliteal.  358 
scalene,  277  and  note 
Stratification  of  themuscles  of  the  trunk  ami  their  associated 

fasciae,  2S4,  2S5 
Structure  of  muscle,  260,  261 
"Sucking-pad,"  290,  note 
Sulci  plantares,  375 

Sulcus  (see  also  "  Furrow"  and  "  Hollow"): 
t  antibrachii  radialis,  322 

ulnaris,  322 
bicipitalis  lateralis.  326 
medialis.  315 
t  deitoideopectoralis,  282 

subclavia;,  299 
Synergists,  263 

T. 

Tabatic!n'  aiiatoiiiique,  326,  note.  327 
Tendo,  261,  262 

Achillis,  366,  367,  369,  371 
calcaneus  [Achillis],  3615,  367,  369,  371 
Tendon,  261,  262 

common,  for  the  origin  of  the  palmar  muscles  of 

the  forearm,  317,  321,  325 
of  diaphragm,  central,  286,  2S7 

cordiform,  286,  note  - 
trefoil,  286,  note- 
in  frapatellar,  353,  355,  356.  366,  367 


Thenar,  322,  324 

Tractus  iliotibialis  [Maissiati],  338,  340,  342 
Triangle,  infraclavicular,  274,  282,  293 
of  I'etit,  266,  267 
Scarp.i's,  350 
Trigonum  delloideopectorale,  274,  282,  293 
femorale,  350 
lumbale  [Petiti],  266,  267 


V. 

Vagina  musculi  recti  abdominis.  274-276,  281,  285,  385,  389 
Vi^jina  !r/ vaginiE— tendinis  zr/ tendinum  : 
digitales  (nianus),  333 
m.  extensoris  carpi  ulnaris,  330 
digiti  quinti,  330 
digitorum  pedis  longi,  372 
hallucis  longi,  372 
pollicis  longi,  330 
t  m.  flexoris  carpi  radialis,  333 

digitorum  (pedis)  longi,  378 
hallucis  longi,  37S 
pollicis  longi,  333 
m.  peroiia.i  longi  plantaris,  378 
m.  tibialis  anterioris,  372 

posterioris,  378 
mm.  abductoris  longi  et  extensoris  hre\-is  pollicis, 

330,  333 
mm.  extensoruni  carpi  radialium,  330 
mm.  extensoris  digitorum  communis  et  exltn.soris 

iiidicis,  330 
mm.  flexorum  communiuni,  333 
mm.  peronaeorum  communis,  372,  378 
Venter  (musculi),  262 

Vincula  of  the  extensor  tendons  of  the  fingers,  330,  331  and 

note 
of  the  toes,  380 
tendinum  (digitorum  manus).  331 
(digitorum  pedis),  380 
Vinculum  subflavum,  331,  note 


Wall  of  the  axilla,  anterior,  2S3 
posterior,  283 
White  line  of  the  pelvic  fascia,  346 


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pt.3 
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BioMed 


Toldt,  Carl 

An  atlas  of  hviman  aoatoiny 
for  students  aind  physicians